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Is hyaluronic acid as effective as skincare brands claim?

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/lian-liu-1459225">Lian Liu</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-surrey-1201">University of Surrey</a></em></p> <p>Hyaluronic acid has become a huge buzzword in the beauty industry, with everything from creams and cleansers to shampoos containing it. Often, these products are marketed to consumers with the promise that hyaluronic acid will boost hydration – important for keeping the skin looking its best.</p> <p><a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2019.00192/full">Hyaluronic acid</a> is ubiquitous in our organs and tissues, playing a crucial role in the function of our cells and tissues.</p> <p>Hyaluronic acid has been in clinical use for decades, for example, as an injectable between joints to help <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31294035/">lubricate cartilage</a>. But at the turn of the century, cosmetic companies began using it as a moisturising ingredient in cosmetic products.</p> <p>Topically, it’s thought that hyaluronic acid works by holding and retaining water molecules in order to <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S014181301833770X">hydrate the skin</a> and restore elasticity, preventing wrinkles. When combined with sunscreen, hyaluronic acid may be capable of protecting the skin against ultraviolet radiation as it has <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.09.188">antioxidant properties</a> (meaning it prevents damage caused by oxidising agents, such as ultraviolet radiation).</p> <p>One of the most frequent marketing claims used to sell hyaluronic acid is the long-held belief that hyaluronic acid holds 1,000 times its weight in water. This means it can maintain moisture and reduce moisture loss.</p> <p>But this claim has been called into question recently, with <a href="https://www.newscientist.com/article/2418345-benefits-of-hyaluronic-acid-in-skincare-products-have-been-oversold/">numerous publications</a> recently discussing <a href="https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-13140853/Benefits-hyaluronic-acid-skincare-oversold.html">the findings</a> of a <a href="https://chemrxiv.org/engage/chemrxiv/article-details/64b5b086b053dad33a6cdcaf">pre-print paper</a> which suggests this claim is not true.</p> <p>The authors of the pre-print, researchers from the University of California, looked into the molecule-binding properties of hyaluronic acid and water to test the claim that it can hold 1,000 times its weight in water.</p> <p>To do this, the researchers created a solution containing 1g of hyaluronic acid and 1,000g of water (0.1% of hyaluronic acid), which was compared with just water. They then applied heat to both solutions, measuring the thermal changes that occurred. They found that there was not much difference in the changes that occurred in the 0.1% hyaluronic acid solution compared with the pure water. They therefore concluded that the long-held claim is not true.</p> <p>These findings may have consumers wondering how well their hyaluronic acid products actually work if it doesn’t hydrate the skin as much as previously claimed.</p> <h2>How hyaluronic acid works</h2> <p>While there’s no disputing the experimental results obtained, the conclusion on hyaluronic acid’s water-holding capacity is not applicable to all forms of hyaluronic acids.</p> <p>Hyaluronic acid comes in different molecular sizes. This pre-print only looked at one medium-sized hyaluronic acid molecule in their experiments. This means the results may only be true for products containing medium and smaller sized hyaluronic acid molecules.</p> <p>When hylauronic acid interacts with water, its water-loving and water-hating parts lead to electrostatic repulsion. This enables large numbers of hyaluronic acid molecules to <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2004.01180.x">form networks</a>, which look a bit like honeycombs, and expand.</p> <p>The larger the hyaluronic acid’s molecule size, the more capable it is of forming these honeycomb structures – and also the more able it is to retain water relative to its own weight.</p> <p>Hyaluronic acid with larger molecular sizes will form these networks at a concentration of 0.1%, meaning it can hold 1,000 times its own weight in water. Some very large molecules will even form these networks at a <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2012600/">concentration as low as 0.05%</a>. This means it can hold 2,000 times its weight in water.</p> <p>It’s also worth noting that hyaluronic acid doesn’t just hold moisture and hydrate the skin. Because of its <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2004.01180.x">hydrating and antioxidant effects</a>, it also promotes cell regeneration and stimulates collagen production. So hyaluronic acid’s benefits go beyond its ability to retain water.</p> <p>Although this paper may have partially debunked one popular claim about hyaluronic acid’s moisturising abilities, that doesn’t mean you should stop using it. The research still shows there’s no doubt about hyaluronic acid’s moisturising abilities, which can leave skin softer, smoother and with fewer wrinkles. Plus, hyaluronic acid’s antioxidant effects promote the growth of new skin cells and collagen.</p> <p>But if you want to make sure you’re getting the most effective product possible, look for one containing multiple weights of hyaluronic acid molecules (sometimes labelled as “triple weight”, “multiweight” or “multi-molecular weight”). Also look for a product containing a minimum hyaluronic acid concentration of 0.1%.</p> <p>This is because research suggests products containing a <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jocd.14981">formulation of multiple sizes</a> of hyaluronic acid molecules could be more beneficial for skin than formulations containing only one molecule size. This is partly due to smaller molecules permeating skin better, while the larger ones hold more water.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/224906/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/lian-liu-1459225"><em>Lian Liu</em></a><em>, Reader, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-surrey-1201">University of Surrey</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/is-hyaluronic-acid-as-effective-as-skincare-brands-claim-224906">original article</a>.</em></p>

Beauty & Style

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Hamish Blake shares major health scare

<p dir="ltr">Hamish Blake has shared the details of a drastic health that resulted in surgery and a series of stitches on his face. </p> <p dir="ltr">The TV presenter took to Instagram to share the news with his followers, revealing that he had to have a skin cancer cut from his forehead. </p> <p dir="ltr">While he was quick to make a joke about the procedure, calling it a “mini-facelift”, he followed up with a serious message for his followers.</p> <p dir="ltr">Sharing a close-up photo of the stitches in his forehead, he wrote: “Got a mini facelift! I love it!”</p> <p dir="ltr">“I’m doing the other side in a few weeks. #love #tinylift #bitbybit.”</p> <p dir="ltr">But in the second photo, he wrote, “OK not really ... This is my reminder to anyone who needs it (ie: everyone) to get your skin checked every six months.”</p> <p dir="ltr">He added, “By the way, everything is totally fine, but glad she got caught very early).”</p> <p dir="ltr">After a particularly harsh summer, Hamish Blake joins a long line of celebs who have battled skin cancers, while reminding Aussies to keep on top of their routine skin checks. </p> <p dir="ltr"><a href="https://oversixty.com.au/health/caring/hugh-jackman-s-health-scare" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Hugh Jackman</a> had two biopsies after doctors became concerned that he may have skin cancers on his nose.</p> <p dir="ltr">While the tests came back clear, the Hollywood legend issued a warning to his followers, saying if his scare “reminds even one person to put on sunscreen with a high SPF, then I’m happy.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Journalist and news presenter <a href="https://oversixty.com.au/health/caring/deb-knight-urges-influencers-to-stop-glorifying-tanning" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Deb Knight</a> also issued a recent warning about “glorifying tanning” after sharing the results of her annual skin check up. </p> <p dir="ltr">Knight shared a series of photos showing the sun damage on her skin, writing, "Got off pretty lightly from my annual skin check. Just a few barnacles zapped but nothing serious this time round.” </p> <p dir="ltr">"Timely reminder to get your skin checked and protect it from the sun in the first place," she added, before tagging two melanoma treatment specialists and the Melanoma Institute Australia. </p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image credits: Getty Images / Instagram</em></p>

Caring

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Sarah Ferguson makes first public appearance since skin cancer diagnosis

<p>Sarah Ferguson has made her first public appearance since her <a href="https://www.oversixty.com.au/health/caring/fergie-reveals-second-cancer-diagnosis" target="_blank" rel="noopener">skin cancer diagnosis</a> was announced almost two weeks ago. </p> <p>The Duchess of York made an unexpected appearance at the <em>Haute Living Celebrates The Haute 100</em> event in Miami, Florida on Monday. </p> <p>Fergie rocked a military-style black and white blazer over a black dress for the cocktail event, and appeared happier than ever as she posed for the cameras. </p> <p>The 64-year-old was pictured cuddling up to and interacting with fellow guests at the event. </p> <p>This comes just two weeks after the Duchess <a href="https://www.oversixty.com.au/health/caring/fergie-breaks-silence-amid-second-cancer-battle" target="_blank" rel="noopener">opened up</a> on her second cancer diagnosis in a year. </p> <p>"I have been taking some time to myself as I have been diagnosed with malignant melanoma, a form of skin cancer, my second cancer diagnosis within a year," she said in the Instagram post at the time.</p> <p>She also recently opened up on her recovery from breast cancer, following her mastectomy and reconstructive surgery.</p> <p>The Duchess expressed her gratitude to her two daughters Princess Beatrice and Princess Eugenie, for their constant support. </p> <p>"My two wonderful daughters are my wholehearted cheerleaders, my devoted champions and my soulmates, and they have been as supportive as can be, as they always are," she told <em>People magazine </em>at the time.</p> <p><em>Images: Getty </em></p> <p> </p>

Caring

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Your skin is a mirror of your health – here’s what yours might be saying

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/dan-baumgardt-1451396">Dan Baumgardt</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-bristol-1211">University of Bristol</a></em></p> <p><a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12095893/">Skin accounts for around 15% of our body mass</a>. It is the largest and most visible organ in the human body.</p> <p>Yet many of the skin’s functions are often overlooked. It’s a sunscreen, a shield from germs, a reservoir of <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28994020/">vitamin D</a> and a means of tightly regulating our body temperature.</p> <p>Being the most visible of our organs, the skin also offers us a view into the body tissues that it protects. So don’t think of your skin merely aesthetically – think of it as a reflection of your health. Disorders of the gut, blood, hormones and even the heart might first be seen on the skin in the form of a rash.</p> <p>Here are a few to look out for.</p> <h2>Bullseye</h2> <p>Ticks are pesky creatures that no one will want to return home from a country walk with.</p> <p>But while the vast majority of tick bites <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36116831/">won’t make you ill</a>, there is one rash that should prompt a visit to your doctor if you spot it.</p> <p>Erythema migrans, a rash named for its ability to rapidly expand across the skin, is a hallmark of <a href="https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1041.long">Lyme disease</a>, a potentially severe bacterial illness. This rash forms a classic target pattern, like a bullseye on a dartboard.</p> <p>Be vigilant for a few weeks after being bitten to check this rash doesn’t make an appearance – especially if you noticed a red lump that wasn’t there before or if you had to remove a tick from your skin. You should also keep an eye out for other associated symptoms of Lyme disease – such as swinging temperatures, muscle and joint pains and headache.</p> <p>The condition is treated with antibiotics, which can prevent long-term complications, including chronic fatigue symptoms.</p> <h2>Purpura</h2> <p>Some rashes are given a <a href="https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1538-7836(22)01880-3">colourful namesake</a> – purpura is one such example. This rash’s name is derived from a mollusc which was used to make purple dye.</p> <p>Purpura refers to a rash of small purple or red dots. The cause is pooling of blood into a deeper layer of the skin (dermis). When pressed with a finger – or even better, the side of a glass – it refuses to blanch away.</p> <p>Purpura signals an issue with either the walls of the tiny blood vessels that feed the skin or the blood within them. This might be from a deficiency in platelets, the tiny cell fragments that allow blood to clot – perhaps from bone marrow failure, or an autoimmune condition where the body turns on itself and attacks its own cells.</p> <p>At worst, purpura may signal the life-threatening condition <a href="https://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/full/10.12968/hmed.2017.78.8.468">septicaemia</a>, where an infection has spread into the bloodstream – perhaps from the lungs, kidneys or even from the skin itself.</p> <h2>Skin spiders</h2> <p>Skin rashes can also take on <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32513406/">recognisable shapes</a>.</p> <p>Spider naevi represent an issue within skin arterioles (small arteries which supply the skin with blood). Arterioles open and close to control the loss of heat from the body’s surface. But sometimes they can get stuck open – and a spider-like pattern will appear.</p> <p>The open arteriole is the spider’s body, and the even tinier capillaries fanning out in all directions are the thready legs. Crush the body under a fingertip and the whole thing disappears, as your touch temporarily stops the blood flow.</p> <p>Often, these are benign and not associated with any specific condition – especially if you only have one or two. However, more than three suggest higher circulating levels of the <a href="https://dermnetnz.org/topics/spider-telangiectasis">hormone oestrogen</a>, often due to liver disease or from the hormonal changes seen in pregnancy. Treat the underlying cause, and the spiders often vanish with time – though they may persist or reappear later.</p> <h2>Black velvet</h2> <p>Changes to the folds of your skin (usually around the armpits or neck) – especially if it becomes thickened and velveteen to the touch – may suggest a condition known as <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jocd.13544">acanthosis nigricans</a>. This “black velvet” skin appearance is more commonly seen in darker skins.</p> <p>Usually, the condition is associated with <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29241752/">disorders of the metabolism</a> – namely type 2 diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome. If either of these conditions are successfully treated, the rash may fade. In rare cases, it can also be a sign of <a href="https://www.hkmj.org/abstracts/v29n4/355.htm">stomach cancer</a>, which should be considered in patients with few or none of the key signs of metabolic disease (obesity and high blood pressure).</p> <h2>Butterfly rashes</h2> <p>Even disorders of the heart can be visible on the skin.</p> <p>Cardiac valves have the important role of correctly directing the journey of blood through the heart and preventing backflow. The valve between the chambers on the left side of the heart (the mitral valve – so called because of its resemblance to a bishop’s hat, or mitre) can sometimes become narrowed, causing the heart’s function to deteriorate. The body’s natural response is to preserve core blood volume, shutting off flow towards the skin.</p> <p>The net effect can produce a purple-red rash, high across the cheeks and the bridge of the nose, like the outstretched wings of a butterfly. We call this <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2050313X231200965?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub%20%200pubmed">mitral facies</a> which, depending on the extent of damage to the heart and great vessels, may persist despite treatment.</p> <p>It’s important to pay heed to your skin. It’s constantly talking to you, and any changes in its texture, colour or if new marks or patterns appear, may indicate something is going on beneath the surface.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/221937/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/dan-baumgardt-1451396">Dan Baumgardt</a>, Senior Lecturer, School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-bristol-1211">University of Bristol</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/your-skin-is-a-mirror-of-your-health-heres-what-yours-might-be-saying-221937">original article</a>.</em></p>

Body

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Deb Knight urges Influencers to stop "glorifying tanning"

<p>Deborah Knight, 51, has spoken out against influencers who glorify tanning as she shared the results from her annual skin check. </p> <p>The TV and radio presenter, shared a series of photos showing the sun damage on her skin, as she reminded her followers to stay sun safe and get their skin checked. </p> <p>"Got off pretty lightly from my annual skin check. Just a few barnacles zapped but nothing serious this time round," she began in the caption. </p> <p>"Timely reminder to get your skin checked and protect it from the sun in the first place," she added, before tagging two melanoma treatment specialists and the Melanoma Institute Australia. </p> <p>She signed off the post with the hashtag #stopglorifyingtanning. </p> <blockquote class="instagram-media" style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/C2n1Rtth20D/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="14"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"> </div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <div style="padding: 12.5% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; margin-bottom: 14px; align-items: center;"> <div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(0px) translateY(7px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; height: 12.5px; transform: rotate(-45deg) translateX(3px) translateY(1px); width: 12.5px; flex-grow: 0; margin-right: 14px; margin-left: 2px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(9px) translateY(-18px);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 8px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 20px; width: 20px;"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 2px solid transparent; border-left: 6px solid #f4f4f4; border-bottom: 2px solid transparent; transform: translateX(16px) translateY(-4px) rotate(30deg);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: auto;"> <div style="width: 0px; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-right: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(16px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; flex-grow: 0; height: 12px; width: 16px; transform: translateY(-4px);"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-left: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(-4px) translateX(8px);"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center; margin-bottom: 24px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 224px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 144px;"> </div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/C2n1Rtth20D/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A post shared by Deborah Knight (@deborah_knight)</a></p> </div> </blockquote> <p>The <em>Money News </em>2GB<em> </em>host has regularly shared her skin journey and has previously opened up about the "true extent" of the "damaging effects of the sun" on <em>9Honey</em>.</p> <p>"As a blonde, fair-skinned child growing up by the beach, I resisted putting on zinc and sunscreen as much as my own children do now," she said in the interview in 2023. </p> <p>She added that she now has to pay the price and has to get her age spots frozen off every year. </p> <p>"I've had a Basal Cell Carcinoma surgically removed from the bridge of my nose, leaving a scar far worse than the damage it could have done if left untreated, possibly spreading and destroying skin, tissue, even bone," she said. </p> <p>She also spoke out about the influencers who glorify tanning. </p> <p>"These are often the same influencers who recommend spending a fortune on anti-ageing treatments and creams and serums, despite willingly exposing their skin to the most damaging ageing element there is – the harsh Aussie sun," she added. </p> <p>According to the <a href="https://melanomaresearch.com.au/about-melanoma/what-is-melanoma/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Australian Melanoma Research Foundation</a>, one in 17 Australians will be diagnosed with skin cancer in their lifetimes, with melanoma reportedly the third most common cancer in the country, following prostate cancer in men and breast cancer in women.</p> <p><em>Images: Instagram</em></p>

Caring

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Sarah Ferguson diagnosed with malignant melanoma – here are the latest treatments for this increasingly common skin cancer

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/sarah-allinson-137762">Sarah Allinson</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/lancaster-university-1176">Lancaster University</a></em></p> <p>News that Sarah Ferguson, the Duchess of York, has recently been diagnosed with malignant melanoma highlights the dangers of this increasingly common skin cancer.</p> <p>Malignant melanoma affects <a href="https://www.iarc.who.int/cancer-type/skin-cancer/">325,000 people worldwide</a> every year. While it’s not the most common form of skin cancer – typically, for every one diagnosed case of melanoma, up to ten non-melanoma skin cancers are diagnosed – it causes <a href="https://theconversation.com/skin-cancer-more-people-die-from-types-that-arent-melanoma-surprise-new-finding-215378">almost as many deaths</a>. The reason for this is because it’s far more likely to spread, or metastasise, to other sites in the body compared to non-melanoma skin cancers.</p> <p>Melanoma arises in a type of pigment-producing skin cell called a <a href="https://www.cancer.org/cancer/types/melanoma-skin-cancer/about/what-is-melanoma.html#:%7E:text=Melanoma%20is%20a%20type%20of,to%20grow%20out%20of%20control.">melanocyte</a>. These cells produce and export melanin in order to provide a protective layer in the skin which helps to screen out ultraviolet (UV) radiation.</p> <p>Mutations in genes that normally carefully regulate cell growth and survival override the controls that ensure the body only produces the cells it needs. The result is uncontrolled cellular growth, or a tumour, that normally appears as an unusual-looking mole.</p> <p>The mutations that drive the growth of a melanoma usually happen as a result of exposure to UV from the sun or from an artificial source, such as a tanning bed. We know this because when a melanoma’s genome is compared to that of a normal cell we can see a high number of mutations that have a <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-1943-3">characteristic “UV signature”</a>. For this reason, melanoma skin cancers occur most frequently in people who have light-coloured skin and who are exposed to high amounts of UV.</p> <p>Non-melanoma skin cancers are also mainly caused by exposure to UV but arise from a different kind of skin cell called a keratinocyte. These are the cells that normally make up the majority of the outer part of our skin, called the epidermis. Cancers that arise from keratinocytes are less likely to spread than those that come from melanocytes – although <a href="https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/health-professional/cancer-statistics/statistics-by-cancer-type/non-melanoma-skin-cancer#heading-One">they can still be fatal</a>.</p> <p>In the duchess’s case, the melanoma was discovered during treatment for breast cancer. Her dermatologist recommended that some moles be removed for biopsy during breast reconstruction surgery. After testing, one was identified as malignant melanoma.</p> <p>If the results of the biopsy show that the cancer hasn’t spread, then like the majority of patients with melanoma, the duchess will be treated with surgery. In this case the tumour will be removed along with some of the surrounding normal skin.</p> <p>The amount of normal skin removed depends on the results of the biopsy – in particular, how deep into the skin the tumour has penetrated (called the <a href="https://www.macmillan.org.uk/cancer-information-and-support/melanoma/staging-of-melanoma">Breslow thickness</a>). The normal skin will be checked for any signs that cancerous cells might have spread out of the tumour.</p> <p>For most people diagnosed with melanoma, particularly if it’s at an early stage, <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK481850/">surgery will cure the cancer</a> and they will be able to go on with their lives. But for around <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8544364/">20% of patients</a>, additional treatment will be needed. This happens if their cancer has spread further into the body or if their cancer can’t be treated surgically. The <a href="https://ascopubs.org/doi/10.1200/OP.21.00686">good news</a> for these patients is that the past decade has seen huge improvements in treatment.</p> <p>Previously the only options other than surgery were radiotherapy or non-specific chemotherapy treatments. These treatments work by affecting the ability of cells to copy their DNA, which prevents them from duplicating and causes fast-growing cancer cells to die. But because these also affect the patient’s normal cells, they were accompanied by severe side effects – and were often ineffective.</p> <p>But we now have a better understanding of the specific changes melanoma makes to cell growth pathways. This has led to the development of drugs, such as <a href="https://www.cancer.gov/news-events/cancer-currents-blog/2022/fda-dabrafenib-trametinib-braf-solid-tumors">dabrafenib</a> and <a href="https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Trametinib">trametinib</a>, that specifically target cells with these altered pathways. In other words, they only target the cancerous cells.</p> <p>These drugs are much more effective and have fewer side effects than traditional chemotherapies – although about half of patients who initially respond to them relapse within a year. In these patients a few of the tumour cells survive by activating other pathways for growth and use these to <a href="https://acsjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/cncr.30435">regrow the tumour</a>. Promisingly, <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10417341/">a recent study</a> suggests that re-using these drugs after a period off them can have good results in relapsed patients.</p> <p>Another exciting development in the treatment of malignant melanoma has been the use of immunotherapies. These involve harnessing the patient’s own immune system to fight the tumour.</p> <p>One particularly successful immunotherapy approach for melanoma involves the use of drugs called checkpoint inhibitors. These prevent cancer cells from being able to hide from the body’s immune system. A <a href="https://www.ejcancer.com/article/S0959-8049(23)00694-9/fulltext">recent report</a> has highlighted how the introduction of these treatments has led to improved survival for melanoma patients.</p> <p>Although the duchess’s skin cancer was discovered while she was being treated for breast cancer, it’s unlikely that the two are related. A more likely risk factor is the duchess’s famous red hair. People with red hair and pale skin that tends to freckle and burn in the sun are at a greater risk of developing skin cancer because their skin produces <a href="https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/mc1r/#conditions">less melanin</a>. This means that their melanocytes are exposed to higher levels of UV and are more likely to undergo cancer-causing mutations.</p> <p>While melanoma is much more common in people with the duchess’s skin type, it’s important to be aware that anyone can get it. It’s a good idea to regularly check your skin for unusual looking moles and to contact a doctor for advice if you have a mole with any of the so-called <a href="https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/melanoma/symptoms">ABCDE characteristics</a>: such as an asymmetrical shape, irregular, blurred or jagged border, uneven colour, is more than 6mm wide and is evolving (either in size, texture or even bleeding).<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/221647/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/sarah-allinson-137762">Sarah Allinson</a>, Professor, Department of Biomedical and Life Sciences, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/lancaster-university-1176">Lancaster University</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty </em><em>Images </em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/sarah-ferguson-diagnosed-with-malignant-melanoma-here-are-the-latest-treatments-for-this-increasingly-common-skin-cancer-221647">original article</a>.</em></p>

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"I just don't like old skin": Jane Fonda's bizarre confession

<p>Jane Fonda has made an unusual confession about her dating life, explaining why she would only date people of a certain age. </p> <p>The Hollywood legend, 85, has been married three times throughout her life: first to director Roger Vadim from 1965 to 1973, then to activist Tom Hayden from 1973 to 1990, and finally to CNN founder Ted Turner from 1991 to 2001.</p> <p>Fonda is currently single, but doesn't plan on staying that way. </p> <p>Despite being open to finding love, the actress has a very specific criteria for potential suitors to meet before agreeing to a date. </p> <p>On the <em>Absolutely Not</em> podcast, the Oscar winner initially suggested she was done with men for good, saying, “I’m done, I’m over, I’m [almost] 86 years old, even in the dark I wouldn’t want to be naked in front of anybody.” </p> <p>But she then went on to confess that there’s still a chance she could fall for a man, but they would just have to be substantially younger. </p> <p>“And here’s another thing, I’m ashamed to say this, if I were to take a lover, he’d have to be 20. Because I don’t like old skin,” said Fonda.</p> <p>She continued, “And consequently, I don’t want to foist that on anybody else. I assume other people are like me, I just don’t like old skin.”</p> <p>“I disapprove of 86-year-old men with 20-year-old women, so I’m not going to repeat it. I can ogle them, and I can’t pretend that I don’t get turned on if I see a certain kind of a person, but no, no, no, I don’t want to force that on anybody.”</p> <p>Her confession has been criticised on social media, with some suggesting the star would be “cancelled” if it was a man that had said the same about young women. </p> <p>“This is seriously weird,” tweeted one fan, while another said: “But an 85 year old man wanting to date a 20 year old woman is disgusting? Am I right?”</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images </em></p>

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Michael Clarke reveals serious health scare

<p>Michael Clarke has opened up about a terrifying health scare, which left him needing surgery. </p> <p>The former Australian cricket captain has spoken candidly about discovering a dangerous basal cell carcinoma in his chest, which left him 27 stitches after surgery to remove it. </p> <p>The 42-year-old said being diagnosed with cancer was a major wake up call. </p> <p>“It does scare me,” Clarke told <a href="https://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/entertainment/sydney-confidential/michael-clarke-reveals-skin-cancer-battle-after-spending-years-playing-cricket/news-story/5fd388960c6113c7461479522bd18c9d?amp&nk=5bc945873ffec79da7263488711d2aab-1699400816" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>The Daily Telegraph</em></a>.</p> <p>“I am a dad ... I don’t want to go anywhere. The most important thing in the world is making sure I help my seven-year-old daughter (Kelsey Lee) and I guess set a good example for her."</p> <p>“To me, making sure I am putting sunscreen on so she can see it is not just me getting her to do it, it is dad doing it as well.”</p> <p>Clarke has had a number of cancers removed since his first diagnosis in 2006, and just last year had a skin cancer removed from his forehead. </p> <p>His extensive history of skin cancer could be a result of spending a lot of time in the sun over his 115 Tests and 245 one-day internationals for Australia, as Clarke pointed out. </p> <p>For that reason, he has recently joined the Australian Skin Cancer Foundation as a national ambassador.</p> <p>“I am excited to partner with the Australian Skin Cancer Foundation to not only spread the word on skin safety, but to help share the importance of sun protection, getting checked and remembering prevention is better than cure,” Clarke said in a statement.</p> <p>“I know first-hand how important these factors are and I am passionate about raising awareness on this vital subject."</p> <p>“Everyone needs to be aware of the danger of the sun all around the world, but particularly in this country. This is not just about being safe, this is about saving lives.”</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p>

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Name that rash: 6 common skin conditions (and how to treat them)

<p><strong>Psoriasis</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>What psoriasis is like:</em></span> Psoriasis is made of red, scaly plaques that can be itchy and painful. It can show up anywhere but is most commonly found on the scalp, as well as the outside of the elbows and knees. It usually starts between age 10 and 30 and tends to be a chronic condition. “It’s a stubborn disease that waxes and wanes, so people have it for their whole lives,” says dermatologist Paul Cohen.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>What causes psoriasis:</em></span> This skin rash is the result of your immune system attacking the skin’s cells, and creating new ones too quickly, which then build up into the plaques. There’s no one single cause, but the condition runs in families. Stress, obesity, smoking and having many infections (particularly strep throat) increase your risk.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>How to treat psoriasis:</em></span> The first step is generally topical steroids, which can be used for a week or two at a time to clear up the plaques. For ongoing treatment, people use a synthetic form of vitamin D (which slows skin growth), medicated shampoos and retinoids (a topical version of vitamin A). Daily exposure to sunlight also seems to help, as does moisturising well. For more serious cases, options include oral medications that suppress the immune system and phototherapy done in a doctor’s office with a special light. (Discover more applications of light therapy.)</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>Possible red flag:</em></span> Serious cases can involve the joints, a condition called psoriatic arthritis. Also, psoriasis increases your chances of having some other diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and autoimmune conditions such as Crohn’s – all of which are, like psoriasis, linked to inflammation.</p> <p><strong>Hives</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>What hives are like:</em></span> Hives are itchy, raised welts that often have a red ring around them. Their most salient characteristic is that they disappear after about a day, only to show up later in a different location. They come in two forms: acute, which lasts six weeks or less, and chronic.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>What causes hives:</em></span> Hives are often the result of the body releasing histamine as part of an allergic reaction to drugs, food or some other irritant. They also commonly appear after a viral illness, as a side effect of your immune system revving up to battle the disease. “There are a number of potential triggers,” says dermatologist Katie Beleznay. In most cases, she adds, the specific origin is never determined.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>How to treat hives:</em></span> Since hives are a histamine reaction, over-the-counter antihistamines are the first line of defence. If that doesn’t clear them up, ask a doctor if you should use a stronger antihistamine or oral prednisone, an anti-inflammatory medication.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>Possible red flag:</em></span> Rarely, people suffer from ongoing outbreaks of hives almost daily for six weeks or more, a condition called chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). The treatment for CIU is the same as for regular hives, but in some cases, it can also be a sign of an underlying thyroid disease or cancer.</p> <p><strong>Eczema</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>What eczema is like:</em></span> Eczema presents as patches of red, scaly skin that are extremely itchy, especially at night. These rashes often appear on the inside of your elbows and knees. If it’s more serious, the skin might blister or look thickened and white in those areas.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>What causes eczema:</em></span> Eczema is the result of having a weakened skin barrier, which can lead to inflammation and an overreaction from your immune system. Most people are born with it, and your genes are partly to blame. “You’re more predisposed to eczema if you have a family history of asthma, hay fever or the condition itself,” says Lisa Kellett, a dermatologist in Toronto. Some research also suggests that it might be a reaction to pollution, or to not being exposed to enough germs in childhood. (Kids who have dogs, for example, are less likely to have eczema.)</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>How to treat eczema:</em></span> For general maintenance, apply a thick, hypoallergenic moisturizer to affected areas immediately after a bath or shower and at night. More serious flares will need topical prescription steroid creams or non-steroid immunosuppressant creams. People with stubborn eczema might also try phototherapy, which uses UVB light to help calm your immune system and reduce itchiness.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>Possible red flag:</em></span> Rarely, what looks like eczema is actually skin cancer, as both can appear red and scaly. “The difference with skin cancer is that it doesn’t go away if you use a steroid,” says Kellett.</p> <p><strong>Contact Dermatitis</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>What contact dermatitis is like:</em></span> Contact dermatitis is a variation of eczema, and it looks similar – red, itchy patches on your skin. But unlike that chronic condition, this skin rash is a reaction to something specific and appears only where the offending object has made contact. “Poison ivy, for instance, will show up as a streak where the branch touched the skin,” says Beleznay.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>What causes contact dermatitis:</em></span> Besides poison ivy, other common culprits that can cause the immune system to go into overdrive are face cream, jewellery or fragrances. You can also develop a new intolerance to something you’ve used for a long time, such as Polysporin. If it’s not clear what caused it, your dermatologist can do a patch test, putting small amounts of suspected substances on your skin to see if you react.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>How to treat contact dermatitis:</em></span> Contact dermatitis is treated with topical steroids, or a stronger oral one, to calm down your immune system and stop the reaction.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>Possible red flag:</em></span> Like eczema, the red and scaly presentation of contact dermatitis could be confused for skin cancer, which is another reason to visit your doctor if you’re not sure what caused it.</p> <p><strong>Rosacea</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>What rosacea is like:</em></span> As rosacea is a dilation of the blood vessels in your cheeks and nose, it often presents as red, sensitive skin in those places. Another form of the condition also includes bumps that resemble acne. For some people, the skin on their nose thickens, making it appear larger.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>What causes rosacea:</em></span> We don’t know what brings rosacea on, but, as with eczema, you’re more likely to have it if others in your family do, too. You’re also prone to acquire the condition if you have sun-damaged skin. “Rosacea usually begins around the age of 35 and gets worse with time,” says Kellett. People often find their flare-ups come after eating or drinking specific things.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>How to treat rosacea:</em></span> For many, preventing activation of their rosacea is as simple as avoiding triggers – but that’s easier than it sounds and can be a serious test of a sufferer’s willpower. “Those are often the good things in life,” says Beleznay, citing coffee, spicy foods and alcohol as common aggravators. Some women find that everyday makeup is enough to cover up the cosmetic impact of the condition, while others use prescription creams or laser or light therapy to constrict the blood vessels in the cheeks and reduce redness. For those whose rosacea includes bumps, topical creams or oral antibiotics often get rid of them.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>Possible red flag:</em></span> Rarely, what looks like rosacea can be confused for the butterfly rash that’s a symptom of lupus, a serious autoimmune disease. The butterfly rash is named as such because of the shape it makes on the nose and both cheeks.</p> <p><strong>Shingles</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>What shingles is like:</em></span> Shingles normally starts out as a tingly, numb or bruised feeling in a small area, most commonly a patch on the abdomen. A few days later, a painful skin rash with blisters appears over those places. As the condition follows the path of a nerve, the rash eventually presents as a stripe that lasts from two to six weeks.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>What causes shingles:</em></span> This one’s easy: chicken pox. Even once you have fully recovered from that virus, your body never totally beats it; it simply retreats and lies dormant in your nerve cells, where, decades later, it can re-erupt as shingles. You’re more likely to get them if you’re immunocompromised or over 50, the age at which most public health agencies recommend you get the vaccine.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>How to treat shingles:</em></span> If you suspect you have shingles, see your doctor immediately. “You have to go right away because studies show that people do much better if the antiviral pills are started within 72 hours of the rash onset,” says Cohen. Additionally, sufferers are often given medication, like a local anaesthetic or codeine, to help control the pain.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>Possible red flag:</em></span> The real worry with shingles is that for some people, if it is not contained quickly, the virus can lead to longer-term pain lasting over three months and in some cases over a year. If the skin rash appears on the face, it can even cause blindness.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/healthsmart/name-that-rash-6-common-skin-conditions-and-how-to-treat-them" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Reader's Digest</a>. </em></p>

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Joh Griggs’ warning following husband’s health scare

<p dir="ltr"><em>Better Homes and Gardens </em>host Johanna Griggs has shared an update after her husband's health scare.</p> <p dir="ltr">Late last year her husband Todd Huggins was diagnosed with a basal cell carcinoma, but the “simple surgery” led to complications which resulted in a bad infection.</p> <p dir="ltr">Speaking to <em>7News</em>, the TV personality provided an update on how her husband is doing and a reminder for all Australians.</p> <p dir="ltr">“He had a skin cancer removed and they didn’t get enough of the margins around it, so when he went back in, he managed to pick up a random infection, which is not uncommon in hospitals,” she said.</p> <p dir="ltr">“He absolutely lucked out; it was very hairy stuff for a couple of weeks.</p> <p dir="ltr">“But he’s back, fighting fit, 100 per cent again,” Joh added.</p> <p dir="ltr">Joh looked at the positive side of things despite everything and said that the situation served as a reminder for her to get her skin checked, which she’s now encouraging other Australians to do.</p> <p dir="ltr">“If anything, I think it was an apt time to remind people to go and get their skin checked,” she said.</p> <p dir="ltr">“I think that was one of the things during COVID that fell off the radar - people getting breast checks and skin checks, going to the dentist, all the health things that we are usually in the habit of doing regularly.</p> <p dir="ltr">“But during COVID, those health services weren’t as easily available, or people were concerned about going out.</p> <p dir="ltr">“We used to be so vigilant with skin checks because of my background in sport and with health - you didn’t want to miss anything.</p> <p dir="ltr">“But we realised he hadn’t actually gone and had a skin check throughout the duration of COVID,” she revealed the impact of the pandemic on her personal life.</p> <p dir="ltr">Joh spends a lot of her time outdoors, both as part of her job as the host of <em>Better Homes and Gardens</em> and in her everyday life, so the TV personality is taking sun protection more seriously - especially after her husband’s recent health scare.</p> <p dir="ltr">“It was a chance to say to people, ‘hey listen, put it back on your agenda and make it a priority’.”</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Images: Instagram</em></p>

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Not just a youth movement: history too often forgets older protesters

<p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/effie-karageorgos-453765">Effie Karageorgos</a>, <em><a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-newcastle-1060">University of Newcastle</a></em></p> <p>Recent sustained anti-coal action by Blockade Australia in the Hunter Valley has brought public protest back into the news cycle. Activists have <a href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2023-06-21/coal-protests-block-rail-lines-to-newcastle-port/102504056">occupied trains, railway lines and machinery</a> in an attempt to obstruct coal production and broadcast their message about the climate crisis.</p> <p>Under recent <a href="https://www.humanrights.unsw.edu.au/research/commentary/explainer-what-are-your-rights-to-protest-australia#:%7E:text=In%202022%2C%20Tasmania%20passed%20anti,%E2%80%9C%E2%80%A6">anti-protest legislation</a> in New South Wales, which has been matched by similar laws in other states, some protesters have been charged by police for their activism.</p> <p>Internationally, protesters faced with arrest have devised new ways to protest. Recently, Iranian activists have started engaging in “<a href="https://www.hks.harvard.edu/faculty-research/policy-topics/international-relations-security/civil-upheaval-iran-why-widespread">micro-protests</a>”, which are small-scale protests over a shorter period of time, to evade arrest.</p> <p>My historical research into the infrastructure of protest, using the anti-Vietnam War campaign in New South Wales as a case study, has found that many Australians who did not or could not actively or publicly protest similarly found “quieter” ways to express their opposition to the conflict.</p> <h2>The youth are revolting</h2> <p>In the popular Australian imagination, it seems the protester is a young person creating a public spectacle – holding up a sign, occupying a building or marching down a city street, even though older activists regularly play a part in protest movements.</p> <p>Many might think of figures like <a href="https://theconversation.com/lidia-thorpes-mardi-gras-disruption-is-the-latest-in-an-ongoing-debate-about-acceptable-forms-of-protest-at-pride-200713">Lidia Thorpe</a> disrupting the 2023 Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras Parade or ongoing protests by <a href="https://www.schoolstrike4climate.com/">School Strike 4 Climate</a>, which have shown how willing young people are to agitate for their collective futures.</p> <p>But, in fact, one of the two anti-coal activists charged on last month for occupying a train in Singleton, New South Wales, is <a href="https://www.police.nsw.gov.au/news/news?sq_content_src=%2BdXJsPWh0dHBzJTNBJTJGJTJGZWJpenByZC5wb2xpY2UubnN3Lmdvdi5hdSUyRm1lZGlhJTJGMTA3MTc3Lmh0bWwmYWxsPTE%3D">64 years old</a>.</p> <p>My research shows our public memory of protest doesn’t come close to capturing everyone who used their energies to protest Australian involvement in Vietnam in the 1960s and 1970s, so we need to shift our idea of both protest and the protester to understand the potential scope of activism.</p> <figure><iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Thm03IUiJ6U?wmode=transparent&amp;start=0" width="440" height="260" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen"></iframe></figure> <h2>Quiet protest</h2> <p>Vietnam War-era protest organisations, such as the Association for International Cooperation and Disarmament, Save Our Sons, Youth Campaign Against Conscription and the Vietnam Moratorium Campaign, were aware of how important “quiet protest” was to the wider movement.</p> <p>They <a href="https://collection.sl.nsw.gov.au/record/1JkmeexY">continually appealed to supporters</a> for help selling buttons, putting up posters, selling raffle tickets, filling envelopes, leafleting and other clerical work. These were all carried out by people who were opposed to the war, and are all considered acts of protest.</p> <p>Social movement theorists agree that time and availability are crucial in drawing people to protest. As far back as 1974, the sociologist <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/002188637401000206">Anthony Orum</a> wrote: "Without people who have time on their hands, great revolutions would probably never get off the ground."</p> <h2>Time and capacity</h2> <p>But what of those who did not have the time or capacity to march on streets, but who still saw themselves as part of the anti-Vietnam War movement?</p> <p>The <a href="https://collection.sl.nsw.gov.au/record/1l4dPbX1">administrative records</a> of protest organisations held in the <a href="https://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/">State Library of New South Wales</a> let us into the lives of such people.</p> <p>These include Ian Robertson, a full-time Macquarie University student, whose parents had banned political activity because they feared it would disrupt his studies. Another silent protester was a Mrs Thomson, who was too busy organising her daughter Sue’s wedding to participate in anti-Vietnam protest activities. Public servants were also not permitted to publicly support the movement.</p> <p>Most such records come from elderly members of the movement. In November 1969, Mabel Wilson, who in her words was “six years an octogenarian,” sent $5 to the <a href="https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C96428">Committee in Defiance of the National Service Act</a>, writing: "I admire your courage and am completely in sympathy with your ideals. Alas! I am very old […] As you can see I can be of practically no use to you – or anyone […] My heart is with you all the way."</p> <p>Similarly, on March 21 1970, Doris J Wilson of Asquith sent a donation to the Northern Districts Vietnam Moratorium Group with a letter saying: "I am past the age where I can do very much more than be just a voice."</p> <p>On September 14 1970, L.T. Withers sent the same group a letter saying: "Congratulations for what you have accomplished. I feel rather guilty at being so useless […] myself and my wife are not as energetic as we used to be as the years are catching up on us a bit. I have enclosed a small donation to your local funds […] I would also be grateful if you could keep me informed of your activities."</p> <p>Ruth Fryer of Hornsby sent a letter on February 9 1971 with a $3 donation: "Sometimes you wish you were young &amp; strong again! But the hard work seems to be left to the young ones."</p> <p>These Australians, among many others, were interested in the anti-Vietnam campaign and wanted to be involved as much as they could, given their limitations.</p> <h2>The infrastructure of historical protest</h2> <p>Studying the infrastructure of historical protest organisations shows us that we need to expand our idea of what a protest movement is and who it includes if we want to achieve the present-day goals of activist campaigning.</p> <p>These findings are exciting because they capture a larger group of Australians in the protest tradition, and move past a limited, and often ableist and ageist, vision of protest to incorporate many others who feel just as strongly about the issues governing their lives.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/208472/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/effie-karageorgos-453765">Effie Karageorgos</a>, Lecturer, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-newcastle-1060">University of Newcastle</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/not-just-a-youth-movement-history-too-often-forgets-older-protesters-208472">original article</a>.</em></p>

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"A night in hospital and a trip to the burns unit later”: Concerned mum's warning against popular fruit

<p><em><strong>Warning: This article contains images that some readers may find distressing.</strong></em></p> <p>A mother has taken to the internet and shared photos of her son’s severe burns that came as a result of him playing with a popular fruit. “A night in hospital and a trip to the burns unit later.” She began in her Facebook post.</p> <p>Her son Otis was playing happily outside with a lime in the sunshine, but the next day horror ensued.</p> <p>“It wasn’t until the next day that we noticed a rash appeared.” The mother said.</p> <p>The parents had assumed the rash must’ve been an allergic reaction to the lime juice, however, the rash quickly developed into a “horrific burn,” she added.</p> <p>The parents took Otis to the hospital where they were informed their son was suffering from a condition called phytophotodermatitis.</p> <blockquote class="instagram-media" style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/Cku5QH2thxE/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="14"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"> </div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <div style="padding: 12.5% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; margin-bottom: 14px; align-items: center;"> <div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(0px) translateY(7px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; height: 12.5px; transform: rotate(-45deg) translateX(3px) translateY(1px); width: 12.5px; flex-grow: 0; margin-right: 14px; margin-left: 2px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(9px) translateY(-18px);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 8px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 20px; width: 20px;"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 2px solid transparent; border-left: 6px solid #f4f4f4; border-bottom: 2px solid transparent; transform: translateX(16px) translateY(-4px) rotate(30deg);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: auto;"> <div style="width: 0px; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-right: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(16px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; flex-grow: 0; height: 12px; width: 16px; transform: translateY(-4px);"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-left: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(-4px) translateX(8px);"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center; margin-bottom: 24px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 224px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 144px;"> </div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/Cku5QH2thxE/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A post shared by Tiny Hearts (@tinyheartseducation)</a></p> </div> </blockquote> <p>Phytophotodermatitis, more commonly known as margarita burn, is a little-known condition which causes burns to the skin when a chemical called furocoumarin reacts to sunlight.</p> <p>The chemical is found in limes, citrus fruit and some plants.</p> <p>“The small lime he had been innocently playing with - had now burnt his skin horrifically!“ The mum said. “If our story can help raise awareness into phytophotodermatitis at least something good has come out of our horrific experience!”</p> <p>The woman has urged parents to be on the lookout for this little-known skin condition.</p> <p>To minimise the risks of phytophotodermatitis, <a href="https://www.healthline.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Healthline</a> suggests washing hands and other exposed parts of the skin immediately after being outdoors, wearing gloves when gardening, putting on sunscreen before going outdoors and wearing long-sleeved tops and pants in wooded areas.</p> <p><em>Photo credit: Getty</em></p>

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The best skin-care routine for oily skin, according to dermatologists

<p><strong>What is oily skin?</strong></p> <p>Oily skin is exactly what it sounds like: skin characterised by the production of a lot of oil. If you’re constantly dealing with shininess, always feel like your face has been hit by an oil slick by the end of the day or tend to notice a bit of oil buildup across your nose and forehead, it may be time to invest in a skin-care routine for oily skin.</p> <p>Need another reason to target oily skin with your daily regimen? Because it produces so much oil (also known as sebum), this skin type often goes hand in hand with acne. But take heart: if you’re battling breakouts, you’re in good company. According to the Australasian College of Dermatologists, acne is the most common of skin diseases and up to 85 per cent of Australians will develop it during their lifetime.</p> <p>Luckily, there are great skin-care formulations that can help oily skin avoid acne and stay healthy, and some formulas may even help curb oil production. Finding the best skin-care routine for oily skin just takes a little know-how, so we reached out to board-certified dermatologists Dr Corey L. Hartman and Dr David Kim to find out what makes a great oily-skin routine.</p> <p><strong>What causes oily skin?</strong></p> <p>“Oily skin is genetic, and it has to do with the size and activity of the oil glands that are associated with the hair follicles,” Dr Hartman explains. “That means if you have thicker hair, you may have thicker or larger oil glands.”</p> <p>Another thing that can impact the amount of oil your skin produces? Hormones. That’s why acne, which is so often associated with oily skin, commonly shows up during puberty, and for those who menstruate, around their periods.</p> <p>Now that you know what triggers oiliness, it’s time to put together your ideal skin-care routine for oily skin – and it’s simpler than it sounds. As Dr Kim notes, when it comes to oily skin types, less is more. “It’s best not to add too many layers for oily skin,” he says. “Otherwise, it can clog your pores and cause acne flares.”</p> <p>If you’re ready to get glowing (but not shiny!) skin, follow the regimen below. Trust us: skin care for oily skin has never been easier.</p> <p><strong>Skin-care routine for oily skin</strong></p> <p>The heart of a good skin-care routine for oily skin has four main daily steps:</p> <p>Cleanser</p> <p>Toner</p> <p>Moisturiser</p> <p>Sunscreen</p> <p>There are additional steps you can add in if necessary or as needed:</p> <p>Exfoliator</p> <p>Acne treatment</p> <p>If hitting all those steps sounds intimidating, don’t worry. We have everything you need to know, including product recommendations.</p> <p><strong>1. Cleanser</strong></p> <p>Every good skin-care routine – including one for oily skin – begins with a good cleanser. You want to use it twice a day: once in the morning to prep your skin to apply your products, and again at night to take off any debris you’ve collected throughout the day.</p> <p>You might’ve heard that you can skip a morning cleansing, but rinsing without washing is better suited to a skin-care routine for dry skin. If yours is oily, go ahead and use a cleanser in the morning and at night.</p> <p>Dr Hartman says that for oily skin, the best face wash is likely “something a little astringent” that uses hydroxy acids or benzoyl peroxide. “You don’t want to do so much that it pushes you in the direction of overly drying,” he explains. That can lead your skin to produce more oil, a process called rebound oiliness.</p> <p>As for the best face wash formulations, Dr Hartman recommends staying away from oils, which can sometimes be comedogenic. (In other words, they can clog your pores.) Instead, look for gel, foam or cream cleansers.</p> <p><strong>2. Toner</strong></p> <p>Toner is technically an optional skin-care step, but many dermatologists recommend it for oily skin because it can help regulate sebum. These watery formulas are meant to eliminate any leftover makeup and grime left after cleansing, while treating the skin with helpful ingredients.</p> <p>What’s the best way to use them? “Once or twice a day on a cotton pad,” says Dr Kim. “Apply to [your] full face.”</p> <p>The best toner for you depends on your goals: Are you aiming for better skin texture? Regulated oil production? A combination of both? According to Dr Kim, if you have oily skin, look for gentle exfoliating acids, such as glycolic or lactic acid, to gently resurface the skin. Or go with salicylic acid to help with sebum control.</p> <p>You’ll know you’ve found the right one when your skin feels soft and smooth after use, not tight or dry. Luckily, unlike the harsh toners of the past, today’s formulas are much gentler and more foolproof.</p> <p><strong>3. Moisturiser</strong></p> <p>Yes, oily skin needs moisturiser. It may sound counterintuitive, but keeping your skin moisturised means it won’t have to work as hard to keep hydration levels up! In fact, Dr Hartman says it’s one of the keys to holding off rebound oiliness. You want to use it morning and night, after cleansing.</p> <p>When looking for the best moisturiser for oily skin, the formula is everything. “I like things that are less creamy and more like a serum or gel base,” says Dr Hartman. “You want something light, nothing too heavy, nothing too emollient,” he explains. In other words, look for terms like daily or sheer, and skip thicker formulas – night creams and bottles marked intense may be too heavy for oily skin. One thing to stay away from: oils, as they can be comedogenic, meaning they may clog pores.</p> <p><strong>4. Sunscreen</strong></p> <p>Sun damage impacts every skin type, including oily skin, so having SPF in your morning routine is non-negotiable. And, yes, that means you need to use it year-round, even on cloudy days and in the winter.   (And don’t forget the scalp sunscreen!)</p> <p>Admittedly, sunscreen can make your skin look a little oily, so finding a nongreasy sunscreen is essential (more on that in a second). But Dr Kim reassures us that’s not impossible. “If you’re using good skin care that helps exfoliate and regulate sebum production, you should be able to wear sunscreen without feeling too greasy,” he says.</p> <p>When it comes to the best face sunscreens for oily types, lightweight daily formulas win. Just be sure yours has an SPF of 30 or higher.</p> <p>Whether you reach for a mineral or chemical sunscreen is a matter of personal preference, and it often comes down to how they wear on your skin (mineral sunscreens can sometimes leave a white cast). “The goal is to find your favourite sunscreen – chemical or mineral – and actually use it every day,” says Dr Kim.</p> <p>Powder sunscreens are a good option for touching up oily skin – they allow you to reapply SPF on the go while soaking up oil. Sunscreen oils, on the other hand, are best avoided. “These can clog the pores,” he says.</p> <p><strong>Exfoliant</strong></p> <p>Exfoliators help remove the dead skin cells that can mix with sebum and clog pores, which is why exfoliating can be an important step in your routine.</p> <p>There are two categories of exfoliants: chemical (like glycolic and salicylic acid or retinols, which increases cell turnover) and physical (scrubs that use friction). Dr Hartman recommends starting with chemical exfoliators, as “they’re a more controlled way of exfoliation,” he says.</p> <p>Apply an exfoliator once or twice a week – or more if your skin can handle it – either in the morning or at night. You may need to start slow, only using it more often if you don’t experience irritation. Beyond that, exfoliate only for very special events, when you really want a glow. That way, you won’t trigger irritation.</p> <p>Dr Hartman’s go-to products for oily skin are prescription retinoids or over-the-counter retinols – not surprising, as these vitamin A derivatives are darlings of the dermatology world. But retinoids are harsh chemicals. “For retinol, start using a pea-size [amount] only twice weekly, and let your skin develop tolerance,” says Dr Kim. You’ll want to apply retinol at night and be extra careful about wearing sunscreen during the day.</p> <p>For people who don’t tolerate them well, Dr Hartman says an alpha hydroxy acid (like glycolic acid) or beta hydroxy acid (like salicylic acid) is a great alternative. If you prefer a physical facial scrub, remember: the finer the particles, the better.</p> <p><strong>Acne treatment</strong></p> <p>First, forget about spot-treating blemishes – if you’re dealing with acne, Dr Kim insists it’s best to treat your whole face. That way, you prevent breakouts before they have a chance to form. And if you’re struggling with breakouts, he says, “you should use at least one prescription cream on your full face to treat existing pimples and prevent new ones.”</p> <p>Heads up: retinoids don’t just aid exfoliation; they can treat acne too. If you’re using a retinoid for acne control and have sensitive skin, you may want to consider this your combo acne and exfoliating treatment. It covers both needs, and including an additional exfoliant in your skin-care routine may cause irritation, especially if your skin is sensitive.</p> <p>If acne is something you grapple with more than occasionally, see your dermatologist for a prescription cream – your doctor will pick the formula that’s best for your skin. If it’s a retinoid, you’ll use this at night.</p> <p>But if you only experience the occasional pimple and would rather go for an over-the-counter option, you’ve got some choices. First things first: you’re going to want a cream rather than a medicated face wash. Sure, face washes offer some acne-fighting ingredients, but you wash them away almost immediately. “Acne wash stays on your face for five seconds, so you need something that will stay on your skin the whole day or night,” Dr Kim explains.</p> <p>While you may see a few other ingredients (like azelaic acid) pop up in the acne world, when it comes to OTC options, there are two all-star ingredients: salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide. Both are effective, but of the two, benzoyl peroxide tends to get a little more love – it’s especially effective when combined with antibiotics (under a doctor’s care), according to the Mayo Clinic.</p> <p>Just be aware that it can bleach fabrics, so make sure to let it really soak in before getting dressed. And, again, make sure to apply it to your whole face, not just one pimple. Remember, your goal is to avoid pimples in the first place.</p> <p><strong>Skin-care tips experts swear by</strong></p> <p>Armed with our dermatologist-approved skin-care routine for oily skin, you’re well on your way to a less-greasy face. But there are a couple more things to consider as you follow this regimen.</p> <p><strong>Skin care and exercise</strong></p> <p>You know you need to wash your face in the morning and at night. But what if you’re feeling particularly grimy midday? If you work out in the middle of the day, for instance, should you wash your face if you have oily skin? “You probably don’t need to do that,” says Dr Hartman. “Twice a day is enough.”</p> <p>Adding an additional cleansing session may dry your skin out, causing more oiliness. You do want to rinse your face, however. That’ll prevent the sweat, debris and oil from mixing and clogging your pores. And it has the added bonus of leaving you refreshed after a gruelling workout.</p> <p><strong>Smart product use</strong></p> <p>Take your time when introducing ingredients. Before slathering a new product all over your face, do a spot test to make sure your skin can handle it. And when dealing with ingredients like benzoyl peroxide and retinoids, which some people find irritating, start slow to acclimate your face, building to more frequent use as your skin adjusts to the ingredient.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/healthsmart/the-best-skin-care-routine-for-oily-skin-according-to-dermatologists?pages=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Reader's Digest</a>. </em></p>

Beauty & Style

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Why being married cuts your risk of skin cancer

<p>A new study has found that married couples are less likely to die of skin cancer because they spot warning signs earlier than singles.</p> <p>The study, which observed 50,000 American skin cancer patients, found that 45.7 per cent of those who were married, had stage 1 tumours – which have a 98 per cent survival rate.</p> <p>The chance of catching skin cancer early dropped 32 per cent for singles, 38 per cent for divorcees and 70 per cent for widowers.</p> <p>The researchers from the University of Pennsylvania said they were stunned by the striking difference in diagnoses.</p> <p>The researchers believe these findings should help dermatologists adjust their advice to patients based on their relationship status, suggesting screening at an earlier age for single patients and encouraging home-screen training for those in relationships.</p> <p>Victims of melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, are expected to increase by seven per cent by 2035.</p> <p>For those diagnosed with stage 1 disease, the five-year survival is reportedly 98 per cent. The five-year survival drops to 62 per cent for those diagnosed with stage 3 disease</p> <p>The study, published in the<em> Journal of the American Heart Association</em>, aimed to investigate how lifestyle and relationships could impact patients’ early detection chances.</p> <p>“Spouses likely facilitate early detection of melanomas by assisting in identification of pigmented lesions that may have otherwise gone unnoticed,” said corresponding author Dr Cimarron Sharon, a dermatologist at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.</p> <p>“They may also provide support and encouragement to see a physician for evaluation.</p> <p>“Thus, married patients are likely to receive a better prognosis because of earlier surgical management.”</p> <p>The study also found that married patients were more likely than single, divorced or widowed patients to have a sentinel lymph node biopsy.</p> <p>SLNB is linked to survival as the sentinel lymph node is closest to a tumour and is the first place it would spread.</p> <p>Dr Sharon said this could be “associated with the spouse's role in supporting the patient and engaging in further discussion”. A partner also reduces the difficulty in travelling to and from a hospital and finding a carer post-surgery.</p> <p>This study is the largest of its kind to find the influence of marriage on the detection of melanoma.</p> <p>Dr Sharon said, “These findings support increased consideration of spousal training for partner skin examination and perhaps more frequent screening for unmarried patients.</p> <p>“Marital status should be considered when counselling patients for melanoma procedures and when recommending screening and follow-up to optimize patient care.”</p> <p><em>Image credit: Shutterstock</em></p>

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Lumps, bumps and oil slicks: what your skin is really trying to tell you

<p>It is common knowledge to drink water, cleanse, tone and moisture to ensure your skin is healthy, but sometimes these methods aren’t enough. Skincare expert and touch therapist, Sarah Jones, believes that skincare starts from the inside and her approach is based around the idea that your skin reflects the tensions and emotions in your life.</p> <p>“Have you ever noticed that your skin reacts badly when you’re under stress? I can sometimes point to a spot and say, 'This is from that terrible traffic jam I got stuck in yesterday.' Or when you’re giddy with good news, people often comment on your skin, saying you’re “glowing”. Don’t underestimate how emotions play a huge role in how our skin behaves,” Sarah said.</p> <p>Sarah explains the emotions behind common skin complaints.</p> <p><strong>Dry skin</strong></p> <p>Sarah suggests that dry skin can be linked to deep-rooted stress, self-criticism and a little sadness. This is common in those who are caring and help others but tend to forget to look after themselves. Be sure to look after yourself even if it is escaping to have a bath, and if you need to talk to someone, speak to a trusted friend or counsellor.</p> <p><strong>Cold sores and breakouts</strong></p> <p>Both of these skin problems can be an indication of unexpressed anger. Sarah explains that cold sores and spots are nature’s way of communicating that you have gotten off balance.</p> <p><strong>Eczema</strong></p> <p>Eczema, which causes crusting and red patches on the skin, is tedious to treat and can be a real battle to overcome. Sarah believes eczema can be a signal that you feel suffocated in your thoughts and emotionally overwhelmed. She suggests writing down how you feel and finding ways to tackle each emotion.</p> <p><strong>Oily skin and acne</strong></p> <p>Those who have oily skin are prone to large pores and regular but small breakouts. Sarah suggests that this can be a sign that you are not relaxed and you put a lot of pressure on yourself. You may also be prone to highly critiquing yourself. Be sure to focus on your confidence and surround yourself with people who encourage you.</p> <p><em>Images: Getty</em></p>

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Hugh Jackman reveals skin cancer results

<p dir="ltr">Hugh Jackman has shared an update on his skin cancer scare just <a href="https://www.oversixty.com.au/health/caring/hugh-jackman-s-health-scare">two days after revealing he had undergone two biopsies</a> to determine whether or not he had basal cell carcinomas. </p> <p dir="ltr">At the time, Hugh explained “basal cell” to be “the least dangerous of them all” when it came to skin cancers, and that he would get his results in a matter of days. It’s also the most commonly occurring, and typically approached with surgery if the biopsy doesn’t remove the cancer first.</p> <p dir="ltr">And now, Hugh has shared his good news, informing his 31.1 million followers on Instagram that his “biopsies came back NEGATIVE!!!” </p> <p dir="ltr">“Thank you ALL for the love,” he continued in his story post, “I feel it! And to the media for helping get this very important message out.”</p> <p dir="ltr">He concluded his statement by reminding everyone to “wear sunscreen with a high level of SPF (no matter the season)”. </p> <p dir="ltr">It was an important message that echoed what he’d told his supporters just two days before, when he explained that “I know you’ve heard me talk about my basal cell carcinomas before. I’m going to keep talking about them, if need be.</p> <p dir="ltr">“And if it reminds even one person to put on sunscreen with a high SPF, then I’m happy.”</p> <p dir="ltr">He went on to add that no matter how much someone might want to tan, it wasn’t worth it, and that his scares were the result of “stuff that happened 25 years ago”.</p> <p dir="ltr">In 2015, Hugh explained to <em>ABC News</em> that his childhood was spent outdoors, and that his “dad or mum ever bought it [sunscreen] or made us put it on”.</p> <p dir="ltr">And in another clip posted to Instagram during one of his previous cancer scares - of which Hugh has had numerous - he urged followers again to take care of their skin health, and prioritise their approach to being in the sun.</p> <p dir="ltr">“If you’re like me and you didn’t really know any better when you were young, and you didn’t wear sunscreen, and you were in the Australian sun, then you need to get a check-up even more.</p> <p dir="ltr">“I just had mine done, I just had a little biopsy. It’s precancerous, it’s not much, but I’m really glad I went.”</p> <p dir="ltr">In total, the <em>Wolverine</em> and upcoming <em>Deadpool 3 </em>star has had six skin cancer removals from his face - all of which took place in 2017 - and another biopsy in 2021. The latter returned an inconclusive result for the actor, when the worst he could have faced was also basal cell carcinomas.</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Images: Instagram</em></p>

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Hugh Jackman’s health scare

<p dir="ltr">Hugh Jackman has announced he is awaiting confirmation that he has skin cancer.</p> <p dir="ltr">The Aussie actor shared that he had undergone two biopsies from his nose for what could be basal cell carcinomas.</p> <p dir="ltr">"Basal cell, in the world of skin cancers, is the least dangerous of them all," he said in a video posted to Instagram.</p> <p dir="ltr">"I'll find out in two or three days."</p> <blockquote class="instagram-media" style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/reel/CqlvvNVp6JR/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="14"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"> </div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <div style="padding: 12.5% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; margin-bottom: 14px; align-items: center;"> <div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(0px) translateY(7px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; height: 12.5px; transform: rotate(-45deg) translateX(3px) translateY(1px); width: 12.5px; flex-grow: 0; margin-right: 14px; margin-left: 2px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(9px) translateY(-18px);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 8px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 20px; width: 20px;"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 2px solid transparent; border-left: 6px solid #f4f4f4; border-bottom: 2px solid transparent; transform: translateX(16px) translateY(-4px) rotate(30deg);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: auto;"> <div style="width: 0px; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-right: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(16px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; flex-grow: 0; height: 12px; width: 16px; transform: translateY(-4px);"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-left: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(-4px) translateX(8px);"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center; margin-bottom: 24px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 224px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 144px;"> </div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" href="https://www.instagram.com/reel/CqlvvNVp6JR/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A post shared by Hugh Jackman (@thehughjackman)</a></p> </div> </blockquote> <p dir="ltr">Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequently occurring of all cancers, with the most common treatment being surgery, if the cancer isn't removed in its entirety by the biopsy.</p> <p dir="ltr">In the wake of his health news, Hugh urged his fans to be safe in the sun and protect your skin from harmful UV rays.</p> <p dir="ltr">"Please wear sunscreen, it is just not worth it,” he said.</p> <p dir="ltr">"No matter how much you want a tan. Trust me, trust me, trust me.”</p> <p dir="ltr">"This is all stuff that happened 25 years ago, it's coming out now."</p> <p dir="ltr">Hugh captioned his video with another public service announcement, writing, “I know you’ve heard me talk about my basal cell carcinomas before. I’m going to keep talking about them, if need be.”</p> <p dir="ltr">“And if it reminds even one person to put on sunscreen with a high SPF, then I’m happy.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Fans were quick to comment messages of well wishes, with one person saying, “Praying it’s nothing. Thank you for using your platform to help others.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Another wrote, “Just booked an appointment with a dermatologist because of this post.”</p> <p dir="ltr">This is not the first time Hugh has had a cancer scare, after previously being treated for skin cancer six times in the past.</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image credits: Instagram</em></p>

Caring

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“Love the skin you are in”: Jana Pittman’s honest snaps prompt outpouring of love

<p>Former Olympic athlete and mother-of-six Jana Pittman has taken to Instagram to share an important message on loving your body with her followers.</p> <p>Jana’s post featured a length caption that was, in her words, “close to my heart”. In it, the 40-year-old was open and honest with her supporters about the impact of motherhood on her body, time, and the “emotional and stressful journey” she has been on over the course of the last year. </p> <p>Alongside the caption came three pictures of Jana, clad in just her underwear and a glowing smile, in a series of poses. One sees her adopting the ‘Superwoman pose’, hands on her hips in a show of strength and power, and another sees her making a heart shape with her own stomach, in a sweet reflection of her “love the skin you are in” message. </p> <p>“I wanted to share these photos because they speak volumes to me. This body used to be ripped and lean, racing for Aus against the world’s best,” Jana wrote. </p> <p>“Fast forward 16 years, 6 kids later and this is where I am at. Yes this is the heaviest I have ever been, yes my body wears the beautiful scars of motherhood, especially the stretched skin from the twins at 39 years old but I am also heavy due to being so time poor!!</p> <p>“Many of my posts show this tough and crazy woman managing so many different facets of life but the reality is I have had to make choices with my time and there has been very little left for me. The last 12 months have been an emotional and stressful journey on several fronts which resulted in comfort eating here and there... so I am now the same weight as when I was heavily pregnant!”</p> <p>Jana went on to share her gratitude for her body and all that it's capable of, while admitting that it isn’t always so easy, telling fans “this is me right now and while I am not exactly comfortable, I am so grateful for this body. It has bravely taken me through so much and even though I don't always honour it, it honours me.</p> <p>“Beauty comes in all shapes and sizes. Love the skin you are in.”</p> <blockquote class="instagram-media" style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/Co5t_B7hxOk/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="14"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"> </div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <div style="padding: 12.5% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; margin-bottom: 14px; align-items: center;"> <div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(0px) translateY(7px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; height: 12.5px; transform: rotate(-45deg) translateX(3px) translateY(1px); width: 12.5px; flex-grow: 0; margin-right: 14px; margin-left: 2px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(9px) translateY(-18px);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 8px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 20px; width: 20px;"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 2px solid transparent; border-left: 6px solid #f4f4f4; border-bottom: 2px solid transparent; transform: translateX(16px) translateY(-4px) rotate(30deg);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: auto;"> <div style="width: 0px; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-right: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(16px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; flex-grow: 0; height: 12px; width: 16px; transform: translateY(-4px);"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-left: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(-4px) translateX(8px);"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center; margin-bottom: 24px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 224px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 144px;"> </div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/Co5t_B7hxOk/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A post shared by Jana Pittman (@janapittmanofficial)</a></p> </div> </blockquote> <p>The post - tagged with the likes of #bodypositive, #beproud, #postpregnancybody, #loveyourself, and #grateful - immediately resonated with Jana’s followers, with many opening up to her and each other about their own journeys with their bodies. </p> <p>“This is an extremely important message and I myself have to remind myself what my body has done and created,” one wrote. “Love every stretch mark and dimple as this is the vessel that helped create and carry life.” </p> <p>“Thank you so much for being so raw and beautiful. You are such an inspiration,” chimed another, who like many was glad to know she wasn’t alone in her feelings. “I really appreciate you sharing as this is exactly how I feel right now and its nice to know we are all in this together.”</p> <p>“I’m the same, after having twins 11 months ago and two other children my stomach has changed shape and bulges. I don’t have time to get into shape, I’m time poor as back at work. Sleep is actually more important for me right now! Better quality sleep!” One told Jana, to which the Olympian replied, agreeing, that going back to work can be a big step with twins who wake during the night. </p> <p>Australian swimmer Shayna Jack even joined the conversation, declaring Jana to be an “amazing inspiration.” </p> <p>And fellow Olympian Anna Meares echoed the sentiment of Shayna and hundreds of others in the comments, writing, “you continue to amaze and inspire me!” </p> <p><em>Images: Instagram</em></p>

Body

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6 things your nails reveal about your health

<p>The body has a unique way of giving hints about your health. According to dermatologist John Anthony, a quick glance at your nails can tell you volumes about your whole-body health.</p> <p>Anthony and Bebra Jaliman, author of Skin Rules, spoke to Health.com about the top seven nail symptoms you shouldn’t ignore.</p> <p><strong>Clubbing</strong></p> <p>“Clubbing of the nails—when the ends of your fingers swell and the nail becomes curved and rounded—can sometimes be a sign of liver or kidney disease,” says Dr Anthony. Chat to your doctor if you experience this.</p> <p><strong>White spots</strong></p> <p>It’s often said that small white spots on the nails are an indication of calcium deficiency, but Dr Anthony says that’s not always the case.  “They’re often the result of minor trauma, such as if you whack your finger against something, and aren’t generally to do with calcium.”</p> <p><strong>Yellow nails</strong></p> <p>Nails can naturally turn a yellow tinge with age, “But it’s also sometimes due to nail lacquers or acrylic nails,” says Dr Anthony. If your nails are usually covered in a thick layer of gloss, try giving them a few days off to recover.</p> <p><strong>Dents</strong></p> <p>If your nails are covered with small dents or pits, speak to a health professional Dr Jaliman says it could be a sign of psoriasis.</p> <p><strong>Dry, cracked or brittle nails</strong></p> <p>According to Dr Jaliman, this is a common problem and there are a few possible causes. “Soft, brittle nails can occur from dryness on the nail plate,” she explains. This could be from swimming, using nail polish remover too often or frequently dishwashing without gloves.</p> <p><strong>Horizontal ridges</strong></p> <p>Bumps or consistent ridges from side-to-side on a nail can be a sign of trauma to the nail. When your body is busy fighting an illness, it tends to allocate energy to the important parts, rather than nail repair. “Your body is literally saying, ‘I’ve got better things to do than make nails’ and pauses their growth,” Dr Anthony tells Health.</p> <p><strong>Concave nails</strong></p> <p>“Spoon nails” are very thin and form a concave shape. Dr Jalimen says if you have this issue, it’s worth consulting a doctor.  “This is usually a sign of iron deficiency anaemia,” she explains, which can be treated with iron supplements.</p> <p><em>Image: Getty</em></p>

Body

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