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Today star Deborah Knight's gruelling work schedule

<p>Deborah Knight is across television screens seven days a week right now – both morning and night – due to her current hectic schedule.</p> <p>The <em>Today</em> co-host is on TV from 5:30 am weekdays and pumps out three-and-a-half hours of high-pressure live television.</p> <p>On top of that intensive workload, Knight is also the anchors of Nine’s 6 pm evening news bulletin on Saturday and Sunday nights, but also fills in for Peter Overton, the weekday host of Nine's 6 pm news bulletin, when he is on leave.</p> <p>And, Overton has been on leave this week, so Knight has had to step in.</p> <p>Knight will be clocking off tonight for a well-earned break for two whole days. However, that means that this week alone, she will have done more than 22 hours of live broadcast presenting. Those are very high numbers.</p> <p>Others in the industry are raising their eyebrows at Knight’s hectic work schedule, as the mum-of-two is waking up at 3 am each day for <em>Today</em> and then back on TV at night for the 6 pm news.</p> <p>“I’m exhausted just thinking about it,” one on-air personality at a rival network told <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.news.com.au/entertainment/tv/morning-shows/television-star-deborah-knight-is-everywhere-becoming-channel-9s-morning-and-evening-workhorse/news-story/bbca998eb03ce7e0d01f37b593b9573b" target="_blank">news.com.au</a>.</p> <p>“Not many people come to mind when I try to imagine someone else so willingly putting in those hours. Live TV is gruelling stuff. She’s a gun.”</p> <p>Media consultant Steve Allen believes that Knight’s constant appearance on Channel Nine is part of a larger plan to aid the failing <em>Today</em> brand by luring some of the evening news bulletin audience to the breakfast show.</p> <p>“It’s a very clever strategy and it should, over the midterm, produce some ratings dividends. <em>Today</em> certainly needs it,” Allen said.</p> <p>“It brings Nine back to where many think it should be, as the professional and slightly more up-market home of news. They’re positioning themselves as more trusted and more serious than that mums-and-dads show called <em>Sunrise</em>.”</p> <p><em>TV Tonigh</em>t editor David Knox agrees.</p> <p>“When Deb was given the plum job of anchoring<span> </span><em>Today</em><span> </span>with Georgie Gardner, Nine indicated she would no longer be fronting prime time news bulletins in Sydney,” Knox said.</p> <p>“But clearly, they recognise she is one of their most versatile presenters, whether holding her own in political interviews or never missing a beat when the news autocue goes down.</p> <p>“Knight has survived TV’s revolving door where many others would not. Whether on Nine or Ten, viewers have always rated her, possibly more than some TV execs.”</p> <p>Allen says that her hectic work schedule at the moment is due to her being “more humble” than many in the television industry.</p> <p>“She doesn’t have any side to her, you know. She’s a lot more humble than many in TV and I think the public sees that. That’s why they really relate to her,” he said.</p> <p>“If Nine is doing tracking research, which I imagine they are, she’s bound to be coming out as someone who viewers like.”</p> <p>Nine has kept quiet about their new strategy, but it will be interesting to see whether or not viewers will follow Knight from the nightly news to the breakfast morning show.</p>

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5 ways to lower your risk of getting type 2 diabetes

<p>Gestational diabetes is a specific type of diabetes that <a href="https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/gestational-diabetes">occurs in pregnancy</a>.</p> <p>Once you’ve had gestational diabetes, your risk of having it again in your next pregnancy is higher. So too is your lifetime chance of <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19465232">developing type 2 diabetes</a> and <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2494649/">heart disease</a>.</p> <p>The good news is taking steps such as adopting a healthier diet and being more active will lower those risks, while improving health and well-being for you and your family.</p> <p><strong>What is gestational diabetes?</strong></p> <p>Gestational diabetes affects <a href="https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/gestational-diabetes">about one in seven to eight pregnant women</a> in Australia. Women are screened for gestational diabetes at around 24 to 28 weeks gestation using a <a href="https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/diabetes-diagnosis">glucose tolerance test</a>. Gestational diabetes is <a href="https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/gestational-diabetes">diagnosed when blood glucose levels</a>, also called blood sugar levels, are higher than the normal range.</p> <p>Screening is designed to ensure women with gestational diabetes receive treatment as early as possible to <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27703397">minimise health risks</a> for both the mother and the baby. Risks include having a baby born weighing more than four kilograms, and the need to have a caesarean section. <a href="https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/managing-gestational-diabetes">Management of gestational diabetes</a> includes close monitoring of blood glucose levels, a healthy diet, and being physically active.</p> <p>The risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases markedly <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12351492">in the first five years following gestational diabetes</a>, with risk plateauing after ten years. Women who have had gestational diabetes have <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19465232">more than seven times the risk</a> of developing type 2 diabetes in the future than women who haven’t had the condition.</p> <p><strong>Type 2 diabetes</strong></p> <p>If type 2 diabetes goes undiagnosed, the impact on your health can be high – especially if it’s not detected until complications arise.</p> <p>Early <a href="https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/what-is-diabetes">signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes</a> include extreme thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, frequent infections and feeling tired and lethargic.</p> <p><a href="https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/complications-of-diabetes">Long-term complications include</a> an increased risk of heart disease and stroke, damage to nerves (especially those in the fingers and toes), damage to the small blood vessels in the kidneys, leading to kidney disease, and damage to blood vessels in the eyes, leading to diabetes-related eye disease (called diabetic retinopathy).</p> <p>If you’ve ever been diagnosed with gestational diabetes, here are five things you can do to lower your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.</p> <p><strong>1. Monitor your diabetes risk</strong></p> <p>Although gestational diabetes is a well-known risk factor for type 2 diabetes, some women have <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20653745">not been informed of the increased risk</a>. This means they may not be aware of the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11874954">recommendations to help prevent type 2 diabetes</a>.</p> <p>All women diagnosed with gestational diabetes should have a 75g oral glucose tolerance test <a href="https://www.racgp.org.au/afp/2013/august/gestational-diabetes-mellitus/">at 6–12 weeks after giving birth</a>. This is to check how their body responds to a spike in blood sugar after they’ve had the baby, and to develop a better picture of their likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes.</p> <p>From that point, women who have had gestational diabetes should continue to have regular testing to see whether type 2 diabetes has developed.</p> <p>Talk to your GP about how to best monitor diabetes risk factors. Diabetes Australia recommends a blood glucose test <a href="https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/gestational-diabetes">every one to three years</a>.2</p> <p><strong>2. Aim to eat healthily</strong></p> <p>Dietary patterns that include vegetables and fruit, whole grains, fish and foods rich in fibre and monounsaturated fats are associated with a <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19531025">lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes</a>.</p> <p>In more than 4,400 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22987062">women with prior gestational diabetes</a>, those who had healthier eating patterns, assessed using diet quality scoring tools, had a 40-57% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with women with the lowest diet quality scores.</p> <p><a href="https://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/glycemic-index">Glycaemic index</a> (GI) ranks carbohydrate-containing foods according to their effect on blood glucose levels. The lower the GI, the slower the rise in blood sugar levels after eating. Research suggests that a higher GI diet, and consuming lots of high GI foods (glycaemic load), is associated with <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4144100/">a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes</a>, while a lower GI diet <a href="https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/36/12/4166">may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes</a>.</p> <p>Take our <a href="https://heq-new.newcastle.edu.au/">Healthy Eating Quiz</a> to check how healthy your diet is and receive personal feedback and suggestions on how to boost your score.</p> <p><strong>3. Be as active as possible</strong></p> <p>Increasing your physical activity level <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24841449">can help lower your risk</a> of developing type 2 diabetes.</p> <p>Engaging in 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week, such as walking for 30 minutes on five days a week; or accumulating 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity a week by swimming, running, tennis, cycling, or aerobics, is associated with <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24841449">a 45% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes</a> after having had gestational diabetes. Importantly, both walking and jogging produced a similar lower risk of type 2 diabetes.</p> <p>In contrast, prolonged time spent watching TV was associated with a <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24841449">higher risk of type 2 diabetes</a> in women with a history of gestational diabetes.</p> <p>Strength training is also important. A large study of <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5161704/">35,754 healthy women found those who engaged in any type strength training</a>, such as pilates, resistance exercise or weights, had a 30% lower rate of developing type 2 diabetes compared to women who did not do any type of strength training.</p> <p>Women who did both strength training and aerobic activity had an even lower risk of developing either type 2 diabetes or heart disease.</p> <p><strong>4. Breastfeed for as long as you can</strong></p> <p>Research shows <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23069624">breastfeeding for longer than three months</a> reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by about 46% in women who have had gestational diabetes. It is thought that breastfeeding leads to improved glucose and fat metabolism.</p> <p>The Nurses Health Study followed more than 150,000 women over 16 years. It found that for every additional year of breastfeeding, the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16304074">risk of developing type 2 diabetes was reduced by 14-15%</a> – even in mothers who had not been diagnosed with gestational diabetes.</p> <p>Organisations such as the <a href="https://www.breastfeeding.asn.au/">Australian Breastfeeding Association</a> and lactation consultants offer support to help all women, including those who have had gestational diabetes, to breastfeed their infants for as long as they choose.</p> <p><strong>5. Keep an eye on your weight</strong></p> <p>Weight gain is a known <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7872581">risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes</a>. In a study of 666 Hispanic women with previous gestational diabetes, a weight gain of 4.5kg during 2.2 years follow-up increased their risk of <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8551882">developing type 2 diabetes by 1.54 times</a>.</p> <p>Another study saw 1,695 women with previous gestational diabetes followed up between eight to 18 years after their diagnosis. This research found that for each 5kg of weight gained, <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796371">the risk of developing type 2 diabetes increased by 27%</a>.</p> <p>Aiming to modify your eating habits and being as active as you can will help with weight management and <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28958344">lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes</a>. Within interventions that support people to adopt a healthy lifestyle, one review found every extra kilogram lost by participants was <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29934481">associated with 43% lower odds of developing type 2 diabetes</a>.</p> <p><em>Written by Clare Collins, Hannah Brown and Megan Rollo. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/had-gestational-diabetes-here-are-5-things-to-help-lower-your-future-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-114298"><em>The Conversation</em></a><em>.</em></p>

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Everything you need to know about vitamin drips

<p>Want to boost your immune system, reduce your physical signs of ageing, or cleanse your blood to get rid of toxins? Intravenous (IV) vitamin therapy, or vitamin drips, promise to help. Some claim they can even benefit serious conditions like cancer, Parkinson’s disease, the eye condition macular degeneration, the pain of fibromyalgia and depression.</p> <p><a href="https://www.refinery29.com/en-us/2018/03/192731/vitamin-iv-drip-side-effects-kendall-jenner-hospitalized">Celebrities</a> have promoted them on social media. The demand has led to <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2019/mar/03/intravenous-vitamin-injection-goes-mainstream">alternative therapy lounges</a> popping up around the world, including in Australia. Patients can kick back in comfy leather chairs while they’re hooked up to IVs in the infusion lounge, watch Netflix and have some tea.</p> <p>But do they work? Or are you just paying for really expensive urine? Let’s look at what the science says.</p> <p><strong>What is IV vitamin therapy?</strong></p> <p>IV vitamin therapy administers vitamins and minerals directly into the bloodstream via a needle that goes directly into your vein. Fans of the therapy believe this enables you to obtain more nutrients as you avoid the digestion process.</p> <p>Providers of these injections say they customise the formula of vitamins and minerals depending on the perceived needs of the patient.</p> <p>Right now for example, many Australian lounges are offering drip “cocktails” containing immune boosting vitamins like vitamin C and zinc to help <a href="https://www.irefresh.com.au/">protect against the flu</a>. Other popular therapy sessions come under names like <a href="https://infusion.clinic/treatments">“Energy Cocktail”</a> and <a href="https://www.dripiv.com.au/services">“Glow”</a>. One vitamin IV therapy session can take 30-90 minutes and will cost between A$80 to $1,000.</p> <p><strong>Does IV vitamin therapy work?</strong></p> <p>IV therapy itself is not new and has been used in the medical profession for decades. In hospitals, it is commonly used to <a href="https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg174">hydrate patients</a> and administer <a href="https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-2-18">essential nutrients</a> if there is an issue with gut absorption, or long-term difficulty eating or drinking due to surgery. Single nutrient deficiencies like vitamin B12 or iron are also often treated in hospital with infusions under medical supervision.</p> <p>But the “cocktails” IV vitamin therapy clinics create and administer are not supported by scientific evidence. There have been no clinical studies to show vitamin injections of this type offer any health benefit or are necessary for good health. In fact, there are very few studies that have looked at their effectiveness at all.</p> <p>There is <a href="http://www.altmedrev.com/archive/publications/7/5/389.pdf">one review</a> on the use of the “Myers’ cocktail” (a solution of magnesium, calcium, vitamin C and a number of B vitamins). But it just contains a collection of anecdotal evidence from singular case studies.</p> <p>Another <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2894814/">trial</a> looked into the effectiveness of IV vitamin therapy in reducing symptoms of 34 people with the the chronic pain condition fibromyalgia. It found no significant differences between those who received the “Myers’ cocktail” once a week for eight weeks and those who did not. In fact, the authors noted a strong placebo effect. In other words, many people said their symptoms improved when they were only injected with a “dummy” cocktail.</p> <p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17515022">Another study</a> that examined IV vitamin use in fibromyalgia patients was missing a placebo group, involved just seven patients and showed only short-term improvement in symptoms. The only other published <a href="https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-3-6">study</a> examined IV vitamin therapy use for asthma. But that study was of even poorer quality.</p> <p><strong>What are the risks of IV vitamin therapy?</strong></p> <p>Even when it comes to vitamins and minerals, you can have too much of a good thing. For example, if you take in more of the fat soluble <a href="https://onlinelibrary-wiley-com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/doi/abs/10.1002/lt.21007">vitamin A</a> than you need, your body stores it, risking <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK234920/">damage</a> to major organs, like the liver.</p> <p>IV vitamin therapy “cocktails” also often contain significant levels of the water soluble vitamins C and B. These are processed by the kidneys and excreted into urine when the body cannot store any more. This makes for some very expensive urine.</p> <p>There is also the risk of infection with IV vitamin therapy. Any time you have an IV line inserted, it creates a direct path into your bloodstream and bypasses your skin’s defence mechanism against bacteria.</p> <p>People with certain conditions like <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/0886022X.2014.882714">kidney disease or renal failure</a> shouldn’t have IV vitamin therapy because they cannot quickly remove certain minerals from the body. For these people, adding too much <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1525-139X.2001.00087.x?casa_token=Q5YupqqGg5gAAAAA:raHNHEk0AHDe45EvVsC3MnNjfxlFqoCoJL8QijrwJLQW5MLCERDly2g_krTTYjMNvreuQuzya211">potassium</a> could lead to a heart attack.</p> <p>People with heart, kidney or blood pressure conditions should also avoid IV vitamin therapy as there is risk of <a href="https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.115.002922">fluid overload</a> without consistent monitoring. The <a href="https://bmcnephrol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12882-016-0323-6">consequences</a>of fluid overload in these patients can include heart failure, delayed wound healing, and impaired bowel function.</p> <p><strong>What’s the bottom line?</strong></p> <p>For most of us, the quantities of vitamins and minerals needed for good health can be obtained by eating a healthy diet with a wide range of foods and food groups. Obtaining vitamins and minerals from your diet is much easier, cheaper, and safer.</p> <p>Unless you have a medically diagnosed reason for getting a vitamin infusion and it was prescribed by your doctor, you are always better off obtaining vitamins and minerals through food.</p> <p><em>Written by Emily Burch. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/do-vitamin-drips-really-work-the-evidence-says-no-so-save-your-money-and-eat-real-food-116823"><em>The Conversation</em></a><em>.</em></p>

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Cassandra Thorburn makes her return to Studio 10 with a racy new look

<p>Cassandra Thorburn, journalist and ex-wife of Karl Stefanovic, returned to<span> </span><em>Studio 10</em><span> </span>on Tuesday with a brand-new look.</p> <p>She debuted a new haircut and outfit that showed off her svelte figure.</p> <p>Instead of her usually straight bob, Thorburn decided to showcase curls that framed her face.</p> <p>She wore a fitted black dress and strapped Grecian style stilettos that were laced up her legs.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/Bz93hbZFD5Y/" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="margin: 8px 0 0 0; padding: 0 4px;"><a style="color: #000; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none; word-wrap: break-word;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/Bz93hbZFD5Y/" target="_blank">Tuesday crew! 🤩✌️ #Studio10</a></p> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;">A post shared by <a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/studio10au/" target="_blank"> Studio 10</a> (@studio10au) on Jul 15, 2019 at 10:56pm PDT</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>During the episode, Thorburn accidentally said that “size” matters as she discussed top marriage proposals with her fellow<span> </span><em>Studio 10</em><span> </span>panellists.</p> <p>“So it always has been about the size of things isn't it ... it's like the ring,” Thorburn began, before comedian Merrick Watts remarked: “That's after marriage.”</p> <p>“No I meant the proposals are getting bigger,” she clarified to her giggling panellists.</p> <p>The hosts also discussed the topic of the amount of “creepy crawlies” that are living inside you and your face.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en-gb"> <p dir="ltr">If you think you're alone – think again! Naturalist Martyn Robinson explains how there's actually hundreds of creepy crawlies living inside you &amp; on your face. 🦟😳 <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Studio10?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Studio10</a> <a href="https://t.co/iz42LBwaqj">pic.twitter.com/iz42LBwaqj</a></p> — Studio 10 (@Studio10au) <a href="https://twitter.com/Studio10au/status/1151054614369714178?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">16 July 2019</a></blockquote> <p>It was a bit of a sensitive topic, as Thorburn shuddered as naturalist Martyn Robinson explained what kind of bugs there are that inhabiting inside your body without you knowing.</p> <p>“They’re taking some of the food that you’re eating, but you won’t get a tapeworm by swallowing the worm. You get them by swallowing a cyst,” Robinson explained.</p> <p>The panel was quick to ask in horror how you get a cyst.</p> <p>“Well, you know how there’s a crunchy bit in your hamburger?” the naturalist clarified.</p> <p>The panellists groaned in disgust before he clarified that you can’t get sick from that cyst as it’s been cooked.</p> <p>Thorburn was also a pretty picture in pink as she appeared on Wednesday's episode of <em>Studio 10</em> as the panelists spoke about a man who had been busted for hiding cocaine under his wig.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en-gb"> <p dir="ltr">Spanish police have busted a man who tried to smuggle cocaine into the country under his toupee. 🧐 <a href="https://t.co/8nKWbVaast">pic.twitter.com/8nKWbVaast</a></p> — Studio 10 (@Studio10au) <a href="https://twitter.com/Studio10au/status/1151263315936632833?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">16 July 2019</a></blockquote> <p>Upon seeing a picture of the man who had been arrested, the panelists burst into laughter. </p>

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Why this is the best way to reduce the spread of flu

<p>This year’s flu season is off to an early start, with 144,000 confirmed cases so far in 2019. That’s <a href="http://www9.health.gov.au/cda/source/rpt_3.cfm">more than twice as many confirmed cases</a> of the flu than for all of 2018 (58,000), and almost as many as the 2017 horror flu season (251,000).</p> <p>The number of cases so far this year, including <a href="https://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/cda-surveil-ozflu-flucurr.htm/%24File/flu-05-2019.pdf">more than 231 deaths</a> nationwide, led the NSW opposition <a href="https://www.canberratimes.com.au/story/6260141/calls-for-hand-sanitisers-to-fight-nsw-flu/digital-subscription/">health spokesperson to call</a> for hand sanitisers in public spaces to help slow the spread.</p> <p>Influenza spreads via droplets from coughing and sneezing, which is why it’s a good idea to catch your cough. But coughing into your hand can leave flu virus on your hands, which is why <a href="https://theconversation.com/cough-and-sneeze-into-elbows-not-hands-13152">we recommend</a> coughing into your <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/hygiene/etiquette/coughing_sneezing.html">elbow or sleeve</a> and washing your hands afterwards.</p> <p>Along with <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-2019-flu-shot-isnt-perfect-but-its-still-our-best-defence-against-influenza-120088">getting vaccinated</a> and staying home if you’re sick, washing your hands is the best defence against getting the flu.</p> <p>If the government can make this easier by providing hand sanitisers in public places, it may be worth the investment. It won’t solve our flu problem but it might be an important tool in the toolbox of measures to reduce its spread.</p> <p><strong>What does the research say?</strong></p> <p>The scientific literature on hand sanitisers isn’t so clear-cut.</p> <p>A 2019 study in <a href="https://doi.org/10.1086/650396">university colleges</a> showed the use of hand hygiene and face masks didn’t protect against flu any better than mask use alone. But unlike some other countries, Australia doesn’t have a strong habit of mask use when people are unwell, so this may not be very helpful to us.</p> <p>A <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001700">2014 study in New Zealand schools</a> showed that providing sanitiser didn’t reduce the rate of absenteeism from school either.</p> <p>While these studies make it sound like hand sanitiser is not very effective, that’s not the end of the story.</p> <p>Other studies show a positive effect – a <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01568.x">16% reduction</a> in respiratory illness in one and a <a href="https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.124610">21% reduction</a> in another. For some infections, the <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01568.x">evidence</a> is even stronger – for example, gastroenteritis, most of which is also viral.</p> <p>However, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01568.x">few of these studies</a> showing the benefits of hand sanitisers were done during a large disease outbreak, which means the potential benefit may be even greater.</p> <p>Not all influenza-like illness is caused by the flu – it can be other viruses as well, so the estimates are a bit rubbery at best. Hand sanitiser trials which look at influenza-like illness or respiratory infections generally are more likely to show benefits than those that just look for influenza – meaning good hand hygiene prevents other infections as well.</p> <p><strong>Lessons from hospitals</strong></p> <p>Although preventing infection in hospitals is not the same as doing it in the community, there are two important lessons from hospital infection control.</p> <p>First, in hospital hand-hygiene programs, hand sanitiser is <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5116.pdf">more effective</a> than soap-and-water hand-washing, provided your hands aren’t visibly dirty.</p> <p>This is partly because of the rapid effect of the alcohol, but mostly because it’s much quicker and therefore <a href="https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.160.7.1017">more likely</a> that staff will use it.</p> <p>The second important point from <a href="https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0702.700234">hand hygiene</a> and <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015452">other areas</a> of hospital infection control is that introducing a “bundle” of strategies usually reduces healthcare-associated infection rates – even when the individual parts of these bundles don’t show benefits alone.</p> <p>This could be because the individual effect sizes are too small, or that change in practice highlights a “safety culture”.</p> <p><strong>Sanitisers can be one of many strategies</strong></p> <p>Installing hand rub in public areas won’t solve this year’s flu outbreak by itself. But it can be part of a bundle of strategies – as long as the dispensers are kept topped up.</p> <p>And it’s certainly a safe intervention – despite some <a href="https://www.change.org/p/all-schools-ban-alcohol-hand-sanitizers-in-schools">desperate hysteria</a> about the safety of hand gels, or the risk of people drinking them, there is little evidence this actually occurs in reality.</p> <p>Hand sanitiser is also likely to be easier to implement than fixing the much larger social problem of Australians <a href="https://www.msn.com/en-au/news/other/australians-know-working-sick-is-bad-for-them-but-they-do-it-anyway/ar-AAE60oJ">going to work</a> when they’re sick. This may be because of inadequate sick leave, concerns about “letting the team down”, or other logistical problems such as child-care.</p> <p>Get your flu vaccine – even now it’s still not too late – and get it for your kids as well, for <a href="https://www.immunisationcoalition.org.au/immunisation/influenza-and-children/">their sake</a> as well as <a href="https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-015-1007-8">your own</a>.</p> <p>Remember to stay home if you’re unwell, and always to cough into your sleeve. And don’t forget to clean your hands – even if the government doesn’t end up making it easier for you.</p> <p><em>Written by Trent Yarwood. Republished with permission of <a href="https://theconversation.com/hand-sanitisers-in-public-wont-wipe-out-the-flu-but-they-might-help-reduce-its-spread-120228">The Conversation</a>.</em></p>

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"Delusional" men ridiculed after 1 in 8 say they can beat Serena Williams

<p>One in eight men believe they could win a point in a game of tennis against the 23-time grand slam winner Serena Williams, a new survey has found.</p> <p>12 per cent of men think they could win a point off Williams if they were playing their “very best tennis”, a recent YouGov survey of 1,732 British adults discovered. Only three per cent of women think they could score a point against the American player.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"> <p dir="ltr">One in eight men (12%) say they could win a point in a game of tennis against 23 time grand slam winner Serena Williams <a href="https://t.co/q0eNBjn7Vu">https://t.co/q0eNBjn7Vu</a> <a href="https://t.co/3InBOWdYwh">pic.twitter.com/3InBOWdYwh</a></p> — YouGov (@YouGov) <a href="https://twitter.com/YouGov/status/1149699495002853376?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">July 12, 2019</a></blockquote> <p>The results have left social media users baffled over how the men can believe that they could hold their own against the world’s number nine, calling them "delusional".</p> <p>“Lord, grant me the confidence of a mediocre white man,” one joked.</p> <p>“This is why men run for President when they have no business doing so,” another wrote.</p> <p>“Clearly those 1 in 8 men are either deluded or Grand Slam-winning professional tennis players,” one added.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"> <p dir="ltr">Clearly those 1 in 8 men are either deluded or Grand Slam-winning professional tennis players.</p> — syedhossain (@syedhossain) <a href="https://twitter.com/syedhossain/status/1149702812751806465?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">July 12, 2019</a></blockquote> <p>Some noted the potential in the premise put forward in the question. One wrote, “Turn this into a TV show, not just with tennis. Regular Cocky Man VS Female Athlete. I’d watch it every week.”</p> <p>“Please [Serena Williams] WE NEED TO SEE THIS please please please I would like to cry of laughter,” wrote model Chrissy Teigen.</p> <p>Others wondered about the context of the hypothetical situation. “Is she blindfolded, too? Is there a 50 pound weight around her neck? Is her side of the court covered in tar and other hazards?” one wrote.</p> <p>“If you gave me 500 chances, I bet Serena gets distracted by my fat belly and laughs herself into a double fault,” another joked.</p> <p>“Reading through the replies, 1 in 8 men tried to logic out how they *could* get a point off under certain circumstances, rather than just admitting that they straight up couldn’t do it on skill which is the actual god****ed question and you know it,” another added.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"> <p dir="ltr">Is she blindfolded, too? Is there a 50 pound weight around her neck? Is her side of the court covered in tar and other hazards?</p> — Pé Resists (@4everNeverTrump) <a href="https://twitter.com/4everNeverTrump/status/1149830196020649984?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">July 12, 2019</a></blockquote> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"> <p dir="ltr">Reading through the replies, 1 in 8 men tried to logic out how they *could* get a point off under certain circumstances, rather than just admitting that they straight up couldn’t do it on skill which is the actual goddamned question and you know it. Don’t @ me with semantics.</p> — Aqua Tofana (@lochnesshamstr) <a href="https://twitter.com/lochnesshamstr/status/1150050352521261056?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">July 13, 2019</a></blockquote> <p>Even regular blokes joined in on poking fun at the survey results.</p> <p>“Based off 33 years of being on this planet, I’d happily have guessed that 1 in 8 of us blokes are genuinely thick as p*****t, so this isn’t really surprising. Bless em,” one chimed in.</p> <p>“One in eight men are cooked,” rapper Briggs posted on his account.</p> <p>“I could definitely stand there and ask myself where the hell the ball disappeared to after Serena hit it,” another man wrote.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"> <p dir="ltr">One in eight men are cooked 😂 <a href="https://t.co/mVlqUISJ9m">https://t.co/mVlqUISJ9m</a></p> — Senator Briggs (@Briggs) <a href="https://twitter.com/Briggs/status/1150219842181402624?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">July 14, 2019</a></blockquote> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"> <p dir="ltr">Well, I mean it's definitely possible, she might just double-fault on the first point, before she'd had a chance to realise that she could consistently ace me by gently tapping the ball right into the middle of my side of the court while sitting in a nice comfy chair <a href="https://t.co/b2gKHkMnZc">https://t.co/b2gKHkMnZc</a></p> — Tom Freeman (@SnoozeInBrief) <a href="https://twitter.com/SnoozeInBrief/status/1149703895284953100?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">July 12, 2019</a></blockquote> <p>While women athletes do not generally play against regular guys, the “Battle of the Sexes” between male and female professional players is a well-known tradition in tennis. One of the most famous games was the 1973 match between Billie Jean King and Bobby Riggs, where the former emerged triumphant in a straight-sets win of 6-4 6-3 6-3.</p>

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Duchess Meghan glows in stunning black frock as she flaunts post-baby body

<p>The Duchess of Sussex has been praised for showing off her post-baby body at the UK premiere of <em>The Lion King</em> in London.</p> <p>Making her first red carpet appearance since giving birth, Meghan showed support for her Hollywood family in a $6,183 black satin dress with sheer sleeves by Jason Wu.</p> <p>The 'Mesh Panel Flared Dress' is surprisingly still available to purchase.</p> <p>She paired the simple ensemble with a black satin Gucci clutch which retails for $3,007 and matching shoes.</p> <p>The new mum kept her hair out of her face in a chic up-do, while showcasing a pair of dazzling earrings by Greek designer Nikos Koulis.</p> <p>Prince Harry was by her side the entire time, looking dapper in a tradition tux and evening shoes.</p> <p>After gracing the red carpet, fans took to social media to commend Meghan for not hiding her post-pregnancy figure.</p> <p>One person wrote: “I get that no one should be lauded for this, but I really respect that Meghan, Duchess of Sussex, has not starved herself to pre-baby weight because it’s ‘expected’ of public figures.”</p> <p>Another agreed, saying: “Meghan looks better now than she ever has and I thought that would have been impossible. That post pregnancy face, body and glow is everything.”</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet tw-align-center" data-lang="en-gb"> <p dir="ltr">I get that no one should be lauded for this, but I really respect that Megan, Duchess of Sussex has not starved herself to pre-baby weight because it's "expected" of public figures.</p> — A Goose Named Keith (@duke_duke_goose) <a href="https://twitter.com/duke_duke_goose/status/1150451951626260480?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">14 July 2019</a></blockquote> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet tw-align-center" data-lang="en-gb"> <p dir="ltr">Meghan looks better now than she ever has and I thought that would have been impossible. That post pregnancy face, body, glow is EVERYTHING. EVERY DAMN THING! 🔥</p> — The Age of Sussex (@brenbrenchie) <a href="https://twitter.com/brenbrenchie/status/1150452684266385408?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">14 July 2019</a></blockquote> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet tw-align-center" data-lang="en-gb"> <p dir="ltr">And she’s so beautiful! Postnpartum weight is healthily lost within 6 months after giving birth. Meghan’s size 4 clothes aren’t going anywhere, except back on her body! 🤗</p> — Nana (@SoccerNana) <a href="https://twitter.com/SoccerNana/status/1150456304718307330?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">14 July 2019</a></blockquote> <p>Scroll through the gallery above to see Prince Harry and Duchess Meghan strut the red carpet.</p>

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Why this is the most dangerous time of the day to eat

<p>We all know the routine of trying to eat healthy and maintain a healthy weight.</p> <p>The food preparation and calorie counting.</p> <p>The Tupperware containers filled with healthy meals to help you stay on track.</p> <p>You do all the hard work to stay on track only for it all to come ravelling undone when you get home from work hungry and snack on everything you can get your hands on.</p> <p>That’s right, arriving home from work is the most dangerous time of the day for people who are aiming to eat healthy and lose weight.</p> <p>Most people feel tired, unmotivated and have low blood glucose levels once they get home from a long day.</p> <p>A glass of wine or beer, some crackers and dip – and anything else we can munch on – suddenly falls into our lap.</p> <p>This is why our evening food routine is just as important as the eating routine we implement throughout the day.</p> <p>At night our body stores the calories we consume during the evening due to hormonal shifts and our body winding down for the night, therefore not moving as much.</p> <p>Here are some tips to ensure your hard work isn’t destroyed.</p> <p><strong>1. Create good dinner habits</strong></p> <p>One of the most important things you can achieve is building positive health habits, reinforcing them so often that they become a part of your day. A way to kick post-work hunger is to replace wine with sparkling water and crackers and dip for cut up fruit and vegetables. This supports weight loss instead of encouraging weight gain and fills your tummy with nutritious snacks.</p> <p><strong>2. Know your go-to meals</strong></p> <p>Not being prepared and having no idea what to cook for dinner increases the likelihood of ordering takeaway. This means we consume even more calories than we already should be.</p> <p>A good idea is to have meals prepared in advance, although we are human and are sometimes disorganised.</p> <p>It would help to have two or three quick and easy meals handy, which are great for weight loss, to fall back on when you have no clue what to make.</p> <p>Some options to keep in mind include salad with lamb strips, grilled chicken breast or tuna, vegetable omelette or barbeque chicken and vegetables.</p> <p><strong>3. Have a food cut-off</strong></p> <p>The majority of the damage includes sweet treats and snacks we consume while watching TVa.</p> <p>Biscuits, ice cream and chocolate can quickly transform themselves from an occasional indulgence to a daily habit.</p> <p>Small treats are encouraged, but overconsumption is not.</p> <p>Give yourself a cut-off time of 8pm or 9pm, which stops you eating completely and controls your daily calorie intake.</p> <p><strong>4. Head for the mints</strong></p> <p>Changing the taste in your mouth can be an easy way to curb cravings.</p> <p>One you finish your evening meal, brush your teeth, chew some gum, have a mint or have a cup of herbal tea.</p> <p>This will signal your body that it’s completing its food consumption for the day.</p> <p><strong>5. Move around</strong></p> <p>Sitting around after eating a large meal is not good for your digestion or metabolism. The more you move around your home, even incidentally, will be helpful for weight control and encourage digestion of the meal.</p>

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People living in rural areas may be at lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease

<p>People who live in regional or remote areas may be at lower risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, according to our <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30265942">recent research</a>.</p> <p>Using data from more 260,000 adults in New South Wales who were aged 45 and over, we found those living in regional or remote areas of the state had a <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30265942">6% to 19% lower risk</a> of being diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease over 11 years, compared with their city counterparts.</p> <p>We identified diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease using the first prescription of a group of medications collectively referred to as <a href="https://www.dementia.org.au/files/helpsheets/Helpsheet-DementiaQandA01-CholinesteraseInhibitors_english.pdf">cholinesterase inhibitors</a> and <a href="https://www.dementia.org.au/files/helpsheets/Helpsheet-DementiaQandA03-Memantine_english.pdf">memantine</a>. These are prescribed after someone gains a <a href="https://www.ihpa.gov.au/what-we-do/standardised-mini-mental-state-examination-smmse">mini-mental state examination</a> score consistent with Alzheimer’s disease, which is then confirmed by a specialist.</p> <p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22798662">Some previous research</a> suggests people living in rural areas may be at a higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. But our results tell a different story.</p> <p><strong>The role of air pollution</strong></p> <p>Research has long told us that <a href="https://news.un.org/en/story/2013/10/453222-outdoor-air-pollution-leading-cause-cancer-say-un-health-experts">air pollution is bad for our health</a>. Emerging research suggests air pollution could also <a href="https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad180631">play a role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease</a>.</p> <p>The problem isn’t just the stuff in the air you can see. The tiny particles you can’t see are the most harmful. Once you <a href="http://www.npi.gov.au/resource/particulate-matter-pm10-and-pm25">breathe them in</a>, they can enter the bloodstream and travel to <a href="https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/01/brain-pollution-evidence-builds-dirty-air-causes-alzheimer-s-dementia">every major organ, including the brain</a>.</p> <p>People living in Australia’s largest cities are generally exposed to <a href="https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/auscon/pages/10279/attachments/original/1542774981/ACF_Pollution_Report_Nov2018_updated_web.pdf?1542774981">higher levels of air pollution</a>, which could help to partly explain why we found a higher risk of Alzheimer’s disease it city dwellers.</p> <p>But it’s unlikely to be the only factor.</p> <p><strong>What’s happening in the brain?</strong></p> <p>Let’s consider the pathway by which many scientists think Alzheimer’s disease may develop, and then work backwards.</p> <p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27050320">Many scientists</a>, <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/nn.4017">though not all</a>, suggest Alzheimer’s disease coincides with – and may be caused by – an abnormal build-up of a particular type of protein, called amyloid beta peptide, in the brain.</p> <p>Accumulating large amounts of amyloid beta peptide may create plaques that cause inflammation, destroy synapses, kill neurons and result in the death of brain cells consistent with Alzheimer’s disease.</p> <p>If this hypothesis is correct, we’re looking for ways to reduce the abnormal accumulation of amyloid beta. Admittedly that is a big “if”, given largely disappointing outcomes of drug trials focused on clearing amyloid beta <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ana.25410">so far</a>.</p> <p>Research on mice suggests <a href="http://science.sciencemag.org/content/342/6156/373">sleep may be able to help</a> clear amyloid beta.</p> <p>Studies in humans also suggest that <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579405/">regular physical activity</a> and <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S156816371500046X">social interactions</a> may help to reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, potentially via amyloid beta reduction.</p> <p><strong>These things might be harder in cities</strong></p> <p>It’s not always easy to get a good night’s sleep. Studies suggest <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40471-018-0139-y">environmental factors</a> that co-occur within urban areas, such as chronic noise, air quality and heat may influence how much sleep you get and whether you feel sufficiently refreshed when you wake up.</p> <p>Urban planning can <a href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(15)01284-2/fulltext">influence participation</a> in physical activity. <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/cities/gallery/2018/apr/10/sydney-urban-sprawl-suburbs-pictures-photography-andrew-merry">Car-centred urban sprawl</a>, for example, remains a major barrier in getting people walking and moving in many Australian cities.</p> <p>Meanwhile, <a href="https://www.relationships.org.au/what-we-do/research/an-epidemic-of-loneliness-2001-2017/at_download/file">men and women over 65 living in Australia’s major cities</a>were more likely than their regional peers to report a lack of social support.</p> <p>All of these factors, including air pollution, may contribute some explanation to the results of our study.</p> <p>But it’s important to note that accessibility to health care may play a role. People in regional and remote NSW generally have to travel longer distances and have less choice than those based in cities. This may lead to lag times in the detection of Alzheimer’s disease, which would affect our results.</p> <p><strong>Connect with nature, wherever you are</strong></p> <p>Living nearby more green space has been associated with better cognition among adults living in <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116310581">Spain</a>, <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027795361730655X">Scotland</a> and <a href="https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/abs/10.1289/ehp2875">England</a>.</p> <p>These studies are backed up by <a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=27199417">decades of experimental studies</a> that show contact with nature can provide <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494402001093">stress relief and lower blood pressure</a>.</p> <p>Public green spaces have the added benefit of providing spaces for <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0272494412000461">outdoor social and physical recreation</a> and may also help to <a href="https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/3/8/e003094">improve our sleep</a>.</p> <p>Green space tends to be more abundant in regional and remote areas compared with major cities, which may help to explain why we found an elevated risk of Alzheimer’s disease in major cities.</p> <p>But no matter whether you live in the country or city, try to make use of whatever green spaces you have around you. Relax in the garden or make regular visits to local parks – your older self will thank you for it.</p> <p><em>Written by Thomas Astell-Burt and Xiaoqi Feng. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/people-living-in-rural-areas-may-be-at-lower-risk-of-alzheimers-disease-112417"><em>The Conversation</em></a><em>.</em></p>

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Health check: Can you treat the common cold?

<p>With symptoms including a runny nose, sore throat, sneezing, cough, headaches and fever, the <a href="http://www.cdc.gov/features/rhinoviruses/">common cold</a> can leave you feeling rotten for up to two weeks.</p> <p>As the name suggests, they’re annoyingly common, with the average adult likely to get <a href="http://www.uptodate.com/contents/the-common-cold-in-adults-beyond-the-basics">two or three colds a year</a>, while children average ten.</p> <p>Common colds are caused by <a href="http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Colds_explained">more than 200 different viruses</a> and tend to be <a href="https://theconversation.com/health-check-when-is-the-flu-really-a-cold-25150">milder</a> than the flu. But while the <a href="https://theconversation.com/explainer-the-2014-flu-vaccine-24294">influenza vaccination</a> can prevent against the most common circulating strains of the flu, there’s no equivalent for the common cold.</p> <p>So, can you prevent the common cold? Or treat it once you have it? Let’s put four popular therapies to the test: echinacea, garlic, vitamin C and zinc.</p> <p><strong>Echinacea</strong></p> <p>Echinacea is a group of flowering plants common in North America, and was a traditional Native American medicine. These days you can buy the product in capsules, tablets or drops.</p> <p>Around <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1038-5282.2001.00351.x">one in 20 Australians take echinacea</a>, in the hope that extracts will stimulate immunity and kill off any bugs encountered.</p> <p>In terms of prevention, taking echinacea products daily to avoid the common cold may slightly reduce the risk of getting a cold, but the evidence is <a href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD000530.pub3/full">rather murky</a>. If we <a href="http://www.cochrane-net.org/openlearning/html/mod12-2.htm">pool the results</a> from studies that compared Echinacea to placebo treatment, people who took Echinacea seemed to get fewer colds. But there is <a href="http://handbook.cochrane.org/chapter_9/9_5_1_what_is_heterogeneity.htm">major inconsistency</a> between the individual studies, so combining them together this way isn’t very valid.</p> <p>In terms of treatment, there is no convincing clinical evidence that taking echinacea products at the onset of symptoms can cure a cold or reduce the duration of illness.</p> <p>However, it’s difficult to come to any clear conclusions or recommendations about echinacea’s effect on the common cold because the preparations studied have varied, with different species, parts of the plant, preparation method and dosage.</p> <p>Echinacea products are not without side effects, such as <a href="http://www.mhra.gov.uk/Safetyinformation/Generalsafetyinformationandadvice/Herbalmedicines/Herbalsafetyupdates/Allherbalsafetyupdates/CON180630">allergic reactions</a>in children which, though uncommon, can be severe.</p> <p><strong>Garlic</strong></p> <p>Garlic has been promoted as a natural preventative against the common cold, taken in commercial products or eaten raw.</p> <p>It too is seen to have antiviral and antimicrobial properties, and manufacturers claim it boosts the immune system. The mechanisms behind these actions are unclear but the chemical <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allicin">allicin</a>, which is responsible for the aroma of fresh garlic, may be the active agent.</p> <p>There is a dearth of quality scientific evidence about the effect of garlic on colds. The recent <a href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006206.pub3/full">Cochrane systematic review</a> which set out to answer this question could find only one study suitable for analysis.</p> <p>Participants who took a garlic capsule (with a standardised dose of allicin powder) daily for three months reported fewer days of illness from colds than those who took a placebo. But they were more likely to suffer from side effects such as skin rash, and body odour.</p> <p>These results may appear promising but need to be approached cautiously until replicated. It’s always possible there are biases in a single study – for instance, the study author appears to sell <a href="http://www.garlic.mistral.co.uk/">medicinal garlic products</a>.</p> <p>The lack of quality evidence precludes a recommendation for using garlic supplements for the common cold. But, of course, people who like eating garlic should continue to do so.</p> <p><strong>Vitamin C</strong></p> <p>Vitamin C is commonly found in fresh fruits and vegetables and is one of the most common supplements taken by Australians. The use of <a href="https://theconversation.com/mondays-medical-myth-vitamin-c-prevents-colds-5931">vitamin C</a> for the common cold became popular in the 1970s, following its promotion by <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linus_Pauling">American chemist Linus Pauling</a> who believed it had many health benefits.</p> <p>There is <a href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD000980.pub4/full">good study data</a> on the effect that vitamin C has on the common cold: for the most part, it isn’t effective.</p> <p>Taking vitamin C daily as a preventative has no effect on the likelihood of getting a cold in the general community. It might have a small effect on the severity of symptoms, and on the duration of illness (about a half day for a usual cold).</p> <p>But taking vitamin C as treatment (taking a dose after you get a cold) does not have an effect on the duration or severity of symptoms.</p> <p>This same data found that vitamin C can be beneficial for people undergoing heavy acute physical stress, such as marathon runners and alpine skiers. But this is an unusual and specific context and the results can’t be generalised for regular community settings.</p> <p><strong>Zinc</strong></p> <p>This mineral is an essential nutrient and is found in both plant and animal sources. Foods that are <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mjao11.11493">particularly rich</a>in zinc include oysters, sun-dried tomatoes, beef and various seeds (including pumpkin, sunflower, sesame, and pine nuts). Oral zinc is widely available in a number of different formulations.</p> <p>Interestingly, oral zinc <a href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001364.pub4/full">does appear</a> to have a beneficial effect for the common cold, but with a number of major caveats.</p> <p>When taken as a treatment at the onset of the cold, zinc appears to reduce the duration of a cold, but only at higher doses (more than 75 milligrams a day). Zinc might be more effective in adults than in children, and when taken as lozenges, particularly in the zinc acetate form.</p> <p>There is little data on using zinc as a regular preventative, and you might not want to because it comes with a number of unpleasant side effects, such as nausea and bad taste.</p> <p>It’s important to note that the results vary between studies and there is <a href="http://www.cochrane-net.org/openlearning/html/mod15-2.htm">some evidence</a> of <a href="http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/21306757/funnel_plot_zinc.jpg">publication bias</a>. So it may be that the estimate of the effectiveness of zinc for the common cold is exaggerated.</p> <p>When we step back, it isn’t really that surprising that nothing really works, or works that well for preventing or treating colds. Given how common it is, any truly effective therapy would be a massive commercial blockbuster and hardly a secret.</p> <p><em>General practice registrars Dr Samuel Cheng and Dr Catherine Lip, from the GP Unit, Fairfield Hospital, co-authored this article.</em></p> <p><em>Written by Michael Tam. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/health-check-can-you-treat-the-common-cold-25323"><em>The Conversation</em></a><em>.</em></p>

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Kate looks uncomfortable: Body language expert's verdict on Archie’s christening photo

<p>Body language experts have weighed in on the two beautiful family photos taken at baby Archie’s christening and released by new parents, Prince Harry and Duchess Meghan.</p> <p>The verdict, however, has left fans and body language professionals gawking at the apparent awkwardness of the photograph.</p> <p>The portrait taken in Windsor Castle’s Green Drawing Room has left royal watchers admiring the new pictures of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex with baby Archie who was christened on July 6 in a private ceremony.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/BzlHhZylvwT/" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/BzlHhZylvwT/" target="_blank">A post shared by The Duke and Duchess of Sussex (@sussexroyal)</a> on Jul 6, 2019 at 8:14am PDT</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>Experts and fans have said the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge appear as stiff and awkward in the new snap which is a great contrast to Prince Charles, 70, and his wife, Duchess Camilla, 71, who come off as relaxed and composed.</p> <p>Royal expert, Judi James told <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.thesun.co.uk/" target="_blank"><em>The Sun</em></a>: “Given all the rift rumours the rather ‘ready to flee’ tension in her pose could be seen as awkwardness.”</p> <p><img style="width: 0px; height: 0px;" src="/media/7828429/royal-family.jpg" alt="" data-udi="umb://media/431483bcad2a44368af029e20b297362" /></p> <p>“But it could also show a desire to lower her own status signals and not upstage the happy couple.</p> <p>“With a very relaxed and jolly-looking Camilla down one end of this pose, Kate sits at the other looking oddly self-diminished and prim, with her arms pulled into her torso and a part-smile on her face.”</p> <p>Mum of three,Duchess Kate looked “ready to flee” according to Judi who was pictured sitting upright in her chair, with a tense smile.</p> <p>Further, the body language expert said Prince William was standing like a “nightclub bouncer.”</p> <p>“Kate doesn't have a real smile on her face. She looks pained,” one person took to Twitter to say.</p> <p>“William looks like he smelled something terrible. They don't look thrilled to be there.”</p> <p>Another wrote Duchess Kate “definitely had a forced smile.”</p> <p>The Prince of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Duchess Meghan’s mother Doria Ragland were a few members or the small 30 guests present for baby Archie’s baptism, along with Princess Diana's sisters, LadyJane Fellowes and Lady Sarah McCorquodale, who are pictured in the official photo.</p>

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“60 is the new 40!" Melanie Griffith flaunts her incredible bikini body at 61

<p>Actress Melanie Griffith has taken bikini body goals to a whole new level in her latest photos shared on her official Instagram account.</p> <p>The 61-year-old treated her supporters to an intimate look into her vacation with friends in Spain – the birthplace of her third husband, Antonio Banderas. The couple divorced in 2015. </p> <p>The <em>Working Girl </em>actress showed snapshots from the fun trip of her posing with poolside pal Masha Adonyeva while looking stunning in a black two-piece and oversized sunglasses.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/BzfmbL1hb9h/" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/BzfmbL1hb9h/" target="_blank">A post shared by MELANIE (@melaniegriffith)</a> on Jul 4, 2019 at 4:49am PDT</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>The latest holiday pics had fans in awe over her bikini-body, with one follower writing: “60 is the new 40!”</p> <p>Another comment read, “Melanie, you look amazing in a bikini.”</p> <p>“Dang Melanie ... you really look like you are 45 years old!” another fan wrote.</p> <p>Griffith recently said to <em><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.instyle.com/news/melanie-griffith-why-get-married-working-girl" target="_blank">InStyle Magazine</a></em> that she’s the happiest she had ever been in a thoughtful admission.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/BznyugGhK5U/" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/BznyugGhK5U/" target="_blank">A post shared by MELANIE (@melaniegriffith)</a> on Jul 7, 2019 at 9:10am PDT</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>“I really don’t think it’s relevant for anyone anymore. But especially if you’re 60 and you have four kids and you’re living the life you’ve always wanted. Then why get married?” she said.</p> <p>“It’s, like, I would love to fall in love and have a romance, a relationship, but I haven’t. I keep looking. I’ve had a couple of lovers but not a relationship,” Griffith said.</p> <p>“All of my husbands, my three husbands — I love them all so much, and we’re all very close.”</p> <p>Griffith turns 62 on August 9.</p>

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Rafael Nadal's on-court superstitions: Can you spot them?

<div> <div class="replay"> <div class="reply_body body linkify"> <div class="reply_body"> <div class="body_text "> <p>Competitive sports are rife with superstitions – many athletes will perform a specific routine or carry ‘lucky’ items in the belief that they will improve the chance of winning.</p> <p>Rafael Nadal is no exception to this. The world number two player has a series of well-documented habits.</p> <p>He always walks on court with one racquet in hand, and then puts down his bag on the bench and turns his tournament ID to face up. He will then take off his jacket facing the audience while jumping. His two drink bottles will be lined up on the floor with the labels facing the baseline of the end he is playing.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"> <p dir="ltr">The most 'Ritual-Tennistic' player of all time.<br />Rafa 'The King of Clay' Nadal.<a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Wimbledon2017?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Wimbledon2017</a> <a href="https://t.co/H1k6JkSQeN">pic.twitter.com/H1k6JkSQeN</a></p> — Naman Saxena (@iamnamansaxena) <a href="https://twitter.com/iamnamansaxena/status/883338032664805379?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">July 7, 2017</a></blockquote> <p>“I put the two bottles down at my feet, in front of my chair to my left, one neatly behind the other, diagonally aimed at the court,” Nadal wrote about the ritual in a <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/tennis/8703175/Rafael-Nadal-my-pre-game-rituals-sharpen-my-senses-before-I-go-into-battle.html" target="_blank">2011 article</a>. “It’s a way of placing myself in a match, ordering my surroundings to match the order I seek in my head.”</p> <p>He will not leave his chair or cross on changeovers before his opponent moves first.</p> <p>When he is about to serve, he will pick his shorts out from his bottom, tuck his hair behind his left ear and then his right before wiping his forehead or fiddling with his nose or shirt, bouncing the ball a certain number of times and then serving. If he has a ball in his pocket, he will take two more from the same ball boy or girl, never from two different people.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"> <p dir="ltr">Nadal’s little ear/nose touching ritual is iconic. <a href="https://t.co/JU28KgyZgf">pic.twitter.com/JU28KgyZgf</a></p> — Elöise Clarke (@eloisegclarke) <a href="https://twitter.com/eloisegclarke/status/1146841368872083458?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">July 4, 2019</a></blockquote> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"> <p dir="ltr">Shoulders, Hair behind the ears, Nose, Shorts out the Arse Crack...Nadals ritual and new take on head shoulders knees &amp; toes before a serve 😂 <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Wimbledon?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Wimbledon</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Tsonga?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Tsonga</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Nadal?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Nadal</a> <a href="https://t.co/8B2knbd6Bk">pic.twitter.com/8B2knbd6Bk</a></p> — Michael Roberts (@MikeyRobs91) <a href="https://twitter.com/MikeyRobs91/status/1147529566195503105?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">July 6, 2019</a></blockquote> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"> <p dir="ltr">As if I never noticed nadals superstition before serve when it's soooo noticeable 😂 <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Nadal?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Nadal</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Wimbledon?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Wimbledon</a> <a href="https://t.co/SdYAPuc14W">pic.twitter.com/SdYAPuc14W</a></p> — wendy brannigan (@wendynwo) <a href="https://twitter.com/wendynwo/status/884442132429365248?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">July 10, 2017</a></blockquote> <p>The habit recently infuriated Nick Kyrgios, who complained that <a href="https://www.oversixty.com.au/news/news/i-wanted-to-hit-him-nick-kyrgios-crashes-out-in-fiery-grudge-match-against-rafael-nadal">Nadal took too long between serves</a>.</p> <p>He will also request his towel after every point, and perform the same footwork routine in between with his right foot stepping first across the left.</p> <p>While the eccentric habits may seem funny to some, psychologist Christoper Mogan said they are no laughing matter. In 2014, Mogan sent a complaint to Channel Seven after Jim Courier and Lleyton Hewitt made repeated comments on Nadal’s rituals during a match against Gael Monfils.</p> <p>“What upset me is that I think it’s known that Rafa has obsessive-compulsive indications,” Mogan told the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.smh.com.au/sport/tennis/doctor-warns-against-trivialising-rafael-nadals-oncourt-routines-20140121-316w8.html" target="_blank"><em>Sydney Morning Herald</em></a>. </p> <p>“Two to three per cent of people have this seriously disabling condition and they would be identifying with him – when he does his square walk … how he places his bottles in a row, very carefully.</p> <p>“They are routines, but the point is they’re meant to try and control anxiety. It’s about getting a ‘just right’ feeling: ‘I can feel just right if I line my bottles up’. It brings a sense of completion, and if you leave something incomplete, it creates a stress.</p> <p>“It is possible it could be just a manifestation of the control athletes seek to get.”</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div>

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Why heart disease is on the rise when smoking is at a record low

<p>Smoking rates in Australia are at an all-time low. And yet, nearly 11,500 people are hospitalised from smoking-related cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel) disease each year, while almost 6,500 die as a result.</p> <p>And it’s not just older people dying from their addiction. More than one-third of deaths from cardiovascular disease, such as heart attack or stroke, in people under the age of 65 in Australia can be attributed to smoking.</p> <p>A recent publication of the largest and most comprehensive <a href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1351-4">study of smoking and cardiovascular disease</a> in Australia is a reminder we can’t be complacent.</p> <p>The study, published this week in BMC Medicine, found current smokers have a five-fold increase in the risk of peripheral vascular disease, such as gangrene. Smoking also doubles the risk of heart attack, stroke and heart failure and triples the risk of dying from these diseases. This is compared to people who have never smoked.</p> <p>The study’s authors said the findings suggest that if a smoker has a heart attack or a stroke, it’s highly probable smoking caused it.</p> <p><strong>What the researchers did and found</strong></p> <p>Researchers followed 188,167 people aged 45 and over for an average of 7.2 years.</p> <p>At the start of the study, none had been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease, 8% smoked and 34% had given up smoking.</p> <p>The researchers used questionnaires, as well as hospitalisation and death data, to the end of 2015 and examined 36 sub-types of cardiovascular disease.</p> <p>Current smokers were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis or an event (a heart attack or stroke) in 29 out of the 36 cardiovascular disease types.</p> <p>The new paper estimates that every year, smoking-related cardiovascular disease results in 11,400 people being sent to hospital and 6,400 people dying. This translates to 17 preventable deaths and 31 preventable hospitalisations a day.</p> <p>The authors report one-third of premature cardiovascular deaths are attributable to smoking. The same researchers earlier calculated long-term smokers have a <a href="https://theconversation.com/smoking-new-australian-data-to-die-or-live-for-37962">two in three chance of dying from a smoking-caused disease</a>.</p> <p><strong>How about those who cut back smoking?</strong></p> <p>Australians who smoke daily smoke <a href="https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/4364.0.55.001~2017-18~Main%20Features~Smoking~85">an average 12.3 cigarettes a day</a>. Many smokers believe cutting back instead of quitting will reduce much of the health risk.</p> <p>But in this study, people who smoked four to six cigarettes a day had double the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease compared to people who had never smoked.</p> <p>These results are similar to those found in smokers followed for years who had cut back rather than quit.</p> <p>For example, a <a href="http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/15/6/472.full.pdf+html">Norwegian cohort</a> of 51,210 people followed from the 1970s until 2003 found “no evidence that smokers who cut down their daily cigarette consumption by &gt;50% reduce their risk of premature death significantly”.</p> <p>Another study from <a href="http://jco.ascopubs.org/content/26/31/5101.full.pdf">Korea</a>, involving nearly half a million men followed for 11 years, found no link between smoking less and the risk of all types of cancer. While there was a significant decrease in the risk of lung cancer, this was “disproportionately smaller than that expected”.</p> <p><strong>And now, the good news</strong></p> <p>Finally, some good news for <a href="https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.83.2.215">smokers who think the damage may have already been done</a>. Quitting smoking dramatically reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease compared with continuing to smoke: the earlier the better.</p> <p>People who quit smoking by age 45 avoid more than 95% of the cardiovascular disease risks related to smoking. Quitting at any age reduced their risk.</p> <p><strong>Looking to the future</strong></p> <p>Health minister Greg Hunt’s recently announced <a href="https://croakey.org/calls-for-national-preventive-health-strategy-to-address-poverty-and-other-determinants-of-health/">national prevention strategy</a> must give high priority to tobacco control.</p> <p>The <a href="https://www.directory.gov.au/portfolios/health/australian-national-preventive-health-agency">Australian National Preventive Health Agency</a>, set up by Labor’s health minister Nicola Roxon in the Rudd government and then axed by the Abbott government, <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329234114_A_PRIORITY-DRIVEN_RESEARCH_AGENDA_FOR_TOBACCO_CONTROL_IN_AUSTRALIA">produced a report</a> on how best to drive tobacco control in Australia, which I co-authored. This followed a lengthy national and international evidence-based assessment and consultation on how to best accelerate the historical decline in smoking.</p> <p>This report can be used to drive research and action to get smoking in Australia well below 10%.</p> <p><em>Written by Simon Chapman. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/smoking-at-record-low-in-australia-but-the-grim-harvest-of-preventable-heart-disease-continues-119169"><em>The Conversation</em></a><em>.</em></p>

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Health check: How long should you stay away when you have a cold or the flu?

<p>Most adults get around <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/features/rhinoviruses/index.html">two to three colds a year</a>, and children get even more. In terms of the flu, there are around <a href="http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/influenza-(seasonal)">3-5 million severe cases of influenza</a> worldwide each year and 290,000 to 650,000 deaths.</p> <p>The symptoms of a cold and the flu are similar, so it’s hard to tell the difference. But the flu is usually more severe and develops more quickly than a cold.</p> <p>Colds and flus can be easily passed from person to person through the air, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and touch, when a person touches an infected surface or object like doorknobs and light switches.</p> <p>So what’s the difference between colds and flus, and how long should you stay away?</p> <p><strong>Colds</strong></p> <p>Cold <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/features/rhinoviruses/index.html">symptoms</a> include a sore throat, cough, runny or stuffy nose, tiredness and headache.</p> <p>Most people become contagious with cold symptoms one to two days after exposure to a cold virus. These symptoms usually peak two to four days later. The <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17397266">common cold usually lasts</a> about ten days.</p> <p>There is nothing you can take to shorten the duration of a cold, and most people will get better without needing to see a doctor. But some over-the-counter medications can help alleviate the symptoms. These include anti-inflammatories (to reduce inflammation or swelling), analgesics (to reduce pain), antipyretics (to reduce fever) and decongestants (to relieve nasal congestion).</p> <p>But be careful you follow the instructions and recommended dosage for these medications. A <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29516533">recent study of US adults</a> who used paracetamol, the active ingredient in many cold and flu medicines, found 6.3% of users exceeded the maximum recommended daily dose. This mostly occurred during the cold and flu season.</p> <p>Natural products such as <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23440782">vitamin C</a> and <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4068831/">echinacea</a> are sometimes recommended to prevent and treat a cold, but there is limited evidence to support their effectiveness.</p> <p><strong>The flu</strong></p> <p><a href="https://www.cdc.gov/flu/index.htm">Common symptoms of the flu</a> include fever (a temperature of 38°C or higher), cough, chills, sore throat, headache, runny or stuffy nose, tiredness and muscle aches.</p> <p>An infected person can <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/flu/keyfacts.htm">spread the flu</a> for five to seven days after becoming infected. The infectious period can begin 24 hours before the onset of symptoms. This means you can spread the flu without even knowing you’re sick.</p> <p>Influenza viruses can cause mild to severe illness in people of all ages. Most people will fully recover within one to two weeks and won’t require any medical attention. Similar to a cold, people can take some over-the-counter medications and other remedies to help alleviate symptoms.</p> <p>But some people can become acutely unwell with the flu. They may require <a href="http://www.who.int/features/qa/seasonal-influenza/en/">antiviral medication</a> and, in severe cases, hospitalisation. Those at <a href="http://www.who.int/features/qa/seasonal-influenza/en/">high risk</a> include pregnant women, children, the elderly, and people with certain medical conditions such as HIV/AIDS, asthma, diabetes and heart and lung diseases.</p> <p>The flu virus strains that circulate usually change every year, so the <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/vaccine/general.htm">best way to prevent getting the flu</a> is to get the annual flu vaccine. The vaccine is <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S147330991170295X">moderately effective</a> and recommended for adults and children over the age of six months. Some common side effects may occur, such as temporary soreness, redness and swelling at the injection site, fever, headache, muscle aches and nausea.</p> <p><strong>Avoid passing it on</strong></p> <p>If you feel unwell, stay home from work or school and rest (and get plenty of fluids) until you feel better. If you’ve had a fever, <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/flu/takingcare.htm">stay home for at least 24 hours</a> after the fever has broken.</p> <p>When you go back to work or school, you may still be infectious, so avoid passing the virus on by:</p> <ul> <li>regularly washing your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds and drying them properly – if soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitiser</li> <li>practising good cough and sneeze etiquette: cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your upper shirtsleeve when you cough or sneeze, and throw away used tissues immediately</li> <li>not touching your eyes, nose and mouth</li> <li>frequently cleaning the surfaces and objects you’ve touched.</li> </ul> <p><em>Written by Nadia Charania. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/health-check-how-long-should-you-stay-away-when-you-have-a-cold-or-the-flu-98702"><em>The Conversation</em></a><em>.</em></p>

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The heartbreaking moment that left Wimbledon spectators shattered

<p>Russian tennis legend Margarita Gasparyan has suffered one of the crueller exits from Wimbledon as an old injury flared up and left her unable to continue the match.</p> <p>The world no. 62 had victory in her sights as she was playing against 8th seed Elina Svitolina and took the first set 7-5 in 51 minutes. The domination continued into the second set as Elina caught up and served at 6-5 to level the match.</p> <p>Margarita has had knee troubles in the past and as the second set of the match came to a close, she looked to be in increasing amounts of pain.</p> <p>Her movement was impacted, and she was unable to stand up at 5-5, which led her to having to lie down on the grass court as the cramp was speculated to be the reason behind her collapse.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"> <p dir="ltr">Gasparyan in a lot of pain now. Leg appears to be cramping after landing on it after a serve. She’s lying on the ground, but seemed to tell umpire she’s ok, just cramping. 5-5, 0-30. <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Wimbledon?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Wimbledon</a></p> — WTA Insider (@WTA_insider) <a href="https://twitter.com/WTA_insider/status/1146386127072497670?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">July 3, 2019</a></blockquote> <p>Margarita could only watch on as her rival brought her water and comforted her at the baseline as the pair waited for physio to arrive. The crowd could only watch on in silence as they waited for the outcome.</p> <p>Margarita continued to play, but barely managed to finish the game. She tried to get around the court as best she could without further aggravating her injury, but her opponent broke to take the lead at 6-5.</p> <p>The physio treated Margarita’s left quad in the changeover, but there was not much more to be done.</p> <p>She was in tears as she limped to the net to retire and continued to sob as she realised that her dreams of being in the third round were at her fingertips.</p> <p>Her opponent, Elina, was stunned. <span>S</span><span>he told </span><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.news.com.au/sport/tennis/wimbledon/margarita-gasparyan-suffers-cruel-wimbledon-injury-heartbreak-while-leading-elina-svitolina/news-story/d2381871e5e6dc75894eda3e21fc928c" target="_blank">news.com.au</a><span>: </span><span>“Honestly, I was a little bit shocked. It’s never nice to get this when someone is injured like that. It puts you a little bit off.</span></p> <p><span></span><span>“At the end we’d expect that she would go and play. Yeah, it happened that way and really unfortunate for her.</span></p> <p>“You give her some water, because I know when there is cramps you need to drink lots of water. Your muscles are contracting, so it’s important just to drink lots of fluids.</p> <p>“So that’s why I gave her some water, because no one really did anything. I mean, we were trying to help, but, yeah, it’s tough to react straight away.”</p>

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Why most Australian teachers feel unprepared to teach students with special needs

<p>Fewer than half (38%) of <a href="http://www.oecd.org/education/talis/TALIS2018_CN_AUS.pdf">Australian teachers</a> feel prepared to teach students with special needs when they finish their formal training. This is despite 74% having trained to teach in mixed-ability settings as part of their studies.</p> <p>The latest <a href="http://www.oecd.org/education/talis/">Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS)</a> shows teachers across the OECD felt professional development opportunities were particularly inadequate for teaching students with special needs.</p> <p>Students with special needs are students for whom a learning need has been formally identified due to cognitive, physical or emotional difficulties.</p> <p>According to the TALIS report, nearly 30% of teachers in Australia work in classes where at least 10% of students have special needs. The report adds to a body of research suggesting teachers <a href="https://www.aracy.org.au/publications-resources/command/download_file/id/246/filename/Inclusive_education_for_students_with_disability_-_A_review_of_the_best_evidence_in_relation_to_theory_and_practice.pdf">feel unprepared to teach students with special needs</a> in mixed-ability classrooms.</p> <p>So, how can we better prepare and support teachers for the reality of diverse Australian classrooms? Investing in high-quality pathways to qualification for special education teachers, and expecting every Australian school to employ at least one specialist teacher to support teachers and students, would be a worthwhile place to start.</p> <p><strong>Better teacher preparation to begin with</strong></p> <p>Depending on the data source, between 8% and 20% of school-age children have <a href="https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4429.0main+features100302009">identified disabilities</a> or <a href="https://www.theaustralian.com.au/nation/education/one-in-five-students-has-a-disability-confidential-data/news-story/a3b1360c2185890344aa79e7f9097c73">special educational needs</a>.</p> <p>Teachers are expected to design learning experiences for students of all abilities and support students with disabilities to participate in learning. This is set out in a national <a href="https://www.aitsl.edu.au/docs/default-source/apst-resources/australian_professional_standard_for_teachers_final.pdf">set of professional standards</a>, introduced in 2011, that guide the program content for initial teacher qualifications.</p> <p>But some critics believe <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262731686_Professional_Standards_for_Australian_Special_Education_Teachers">the standards don’t go far enough</a> in relation to teaching students with special needs. Typically, teacher education programs include a semester unit related to teaching students with special needs.</p> <p>Traditionally, the content was taught “categorically”, meaning lecturers provided introductory information about multiple categories of special need. Contemporary units have <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08856257.2013.778113">shifted away from the categorical model</a>, recognising that teaching in diverse classrooms is more complex than just responding to one individual need at a time.</p> <p>But while a semester unit can focus on key concepts and practices, these need to be reinforced throughout the program. In fact, given the nature of today’s classrooms, they should be at the heart of the program. Preservice teachers need support to understand evidence-based inclusive practices, <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233234812_Teacher_preparation_for_inclusive_education_Increasing_knowledge_but_raising_concerns">address common concerns and misconceptions about inclusion</a>, and apply strategies in practice.</p> <p>Even with excellent preservice education, a graduating teacher, by definition, is inexperienced. Teaching students with special needs requires skills that develop with time and ongoing support.</p> <p>Yet, only 37% of early career teachers (those in their first five years of practice) in the survey said they work with an assigned mentor.</p> <p><strong>Employ qualified specialist teachers</strong></p> <p>In the TALIS report, almost one in five principals reported the quality of their school’s inclusive education was hindered by a shortage of teachers who were competent in teaching students with special needs.</p> <p>Not every school is required to employ qualified special education teachers. And the percentage of schools with at least one qualified special education teacher is not known.</p> <p>One study found even when schools advertise for a special education teacher or coordinator, they often <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jennifer_Stephenson/publication/271898111_What_Do_Employers_Ask_for_in_Advertisements_for_Special_Education_Positions/links/54dc32190cf23fe133b09530/What-Do-Employers-Ask-for-in-Advertisements-for-Special-Education-Positions.pdf">fail to list formal special education qualifications</a> among the selection criteria. And less than one-third explicitly call for special education experience.</p> <p>Further, there is no nationally recognised pathway to qualification as a special education teacher in Australia. Special education is not a recognised area of specialisation in the <a href="https://www.aitsl.edu.au/deliver-ite-programs/standards-and-procedures">standards</a> that guide accreditation of teacher education programs.</p> <p>This makes it difficult to design specialist undergraduate degrees. At the same time, there is no financial incentive for teachers to do postgraduate qualifications. Under these conditions, it is hard to see how the shortage of qualified specialist teachers will be addressed.</p> <p>Countries including the <a href="https://www.cec.sped.org/standards">US</a> and the <a href="https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/273877/special_educational_needs_code_of_practice.pdf">UK</a> have developed national, professional standards detailing essential knowledge and skills for special education teachers. These have been formally adopted and guide the content of accredited teacher education programs.</p> <p>Both countries have clear regulations about <a href="https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-award-for-sen-co-ordination-learning-outcomes">qualifications</a> and/or <a href="https://www.specialeducationguide.com/teacher-certification/">licensure</a> for employment as a special education teacher or coordinator (in the US, these are supported by legislation).</p> <p>Australia is lagging behind in these key areas, despite calls from <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262731686_Professional_Standards_for_Australian_Special_Education_Teachers">researchers</a> and <a href="http://aase.edu.au/about/position-papers">professional associations</a>.</p> <p><strong>Quality professional development</strong></p> <p>The TALIS report shows teachers prefer professional development opportunities in which they collaborate with colleagues, such as through peer learning or coaching. Attending one-off workshops remains the most common option for professional development (reported by 93% of teachers), despite the lack of evidence for its effectiveness.</p> <p>There are <a href="https://www.aitsl.edu.au/tools-resources/resource/australian-teacher-performance-and-development-framework">promising national efforts</a> to improve induction, mentoring and professional development for teachers.</p> <p>But the content of professional development also matters. Mentors should understand and be able to support evidence-based inclusive practices. Professional development should also be facilitated by those with expert knowledge. And teachers need ongoing access to information, advice and support in their daily work.</p> <p>Professional development for inclusive practice <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/003172171109200616?casa_token=0l0kZ_ZkqCYAAAAA:AWW04jVlBaVIMhqO73za3KXavCM4abm-i2_1HTxssMkPlURegoAOGkZljPLiMnFWpOfZs7Nmq6e41g">can be effective</a> when it:</p> <ul> <li>Actively engages teachers over extended periods</li> <li>Has clear links to student learning in local contexts</li> <li>Allows teachers to learn together as part of communities of practice</li> <li>Is supported by strong school leadership.</li> </ul> <p>Preparing teachers who feel confident to teach students with special needs is essential to having inclusive schools as part of an inclusive society. We shouldn’t underestimate the challenge of teaching for a very broad range of students. Equally, we shouldn’t underestimate the capacity of good teachers to do so, given the right support.</p> <p><em>Written by Jane Jarvis. Republished with permission of <a href="https://theconversation.com/most-australian-teachers-feel-unprepared-to-teach-students-with-special-needs-119227">The Conversation</a>.</em></p>

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Arnott’s slammed for "size-shaming" biscuit ad

<p>Arnott’s has been slammed by customers after a body-shaming ad from 14 years ago resurfaced online.</p> <p>The contentious ad features two pairs of underwear and a pack of Snack Right Fruit Slice biscuits.</p> <p>The larger pair is labelled “snack wrong”, while the smaller pair is labelled “snack right”. At the bottom of the page, an image of the biscuit packet is featured with the tagline “the healthier biscuit”.</p> <p><iframe src="https://www.facebook.com/plugins/post.php?href=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2Fnopesisters%2Fphotos%2Fa.584970321700687%2F1073435262854188%2F%3Ftype%3D3&amp;width=500" width="500" height="745" style="border: none; overflow: hidden;" scrolling="no" frameborder="0" allowtransparency="true" allow="encrypted-media"></iframe></p> <p>Social media users criticised the ad for encouraging body image issues.</p> <p>“This size shaming marketing for Arnott’s Biscuits Limited in a mag is ABSOLUTELY WRONG! How dare they try to sell high sugar biscuits in this disgraceful way,” a Facebook page posted along with a picture of the ad. “When will they get it? That #ANYSIZE is right for you, as long as you are healthy and happy.”</p> <p>“Just dreadful. I hope their marketing team listens. Really listens and gets why this is so wrong,” one person commented.</p> <p>“This is something they should be ashamed of,” another added.</p> <p>After the ad circulated around social media sites on Monday, an Arnott’s spokesperson confirmed that the campaign is not current. </p> <p>“This advertising campaign … was in poor taste, and does not reflect Arnott's brand values,” the spokesperson told <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.stuff.co.nz/life-style/113904932/arnotts-comes-under-fire-for-body-shaming-biscuit-advertisement-published-in-2006?fbclid=IwAR0t3oMgu7ujztXRpOzLazifyAOeshbDWt6ZTfauAqMSRNrJPvaKTbCXQVE" target="_blank">stuff.co.nz</a> in a statement.</p> <p>“While this advertisement was printed in 2005, it should not have run in the first place and we apologise for any offence caused.</p> <p>“Arnott’s is committed to conducting business in a manner that is respectful and inclusive of everyone.”</p>

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Incredible upset at Wimbledon as 15-year-old knocks out Williams

<p>In a shocking upset, 15-year-old Cori Gauff, who is the youngest ever Wimbledon qualifier, has beaten tennis legend Venus Williams in the first round.</p> <p>Venus, 39, has won the Wimbledon singles title five times, including twice before Cori was even born.</p> <p>Now, Cori has caused one of the biggest shocks in Wimbledon history as she beat Venus and made a mockery of the 269 ranking spots that separate the pair.</p> <p>Cori was relentless in her brand of tennis and bullied Venus into submission.</p> <p>Upon realising she had won, Cori burst into tears.</p> <p>"I don't even know how to explain how I feel," Cori said to the <em><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-07-02/youngest-ever-wimbledon-qualifier-beats-venus-williams/11269888" target="_blank">ABC</a> </em>moments after her remarkable win.</p> <p>Cori had no idea that she would win against the tennis legend.</p> <p>"I definitely had to tell myself to stay calm. I have never played on a court so big, but I had to remind myself that the lines on the court are the same size, everything around it might be bigger, but the lines are the same and after every point I was just telling myself to stay calm.</p> <p>"I never thought this would happen. I am literally living my dream right now, and not many get to say that.”</p> <p>Cori also explained that she is just happy that she had the chance to play at Wimbledon as she was handed a wildcard for the qualifying tournament at Roehampton.</p> <p>"So I am just happy that Wimbledon gave me the opportunity just to play and I obviously never thought it would be this far."</p> <p>Venus took it in her stride, with Cori saying that “she said congratulations”.</p> <p>"After the match I told her just thank you for everything she did. I wouldn't be here if it wasn't for her," she said.</p> <p>"I was just telling her that she is so inspiring and that I always wanted to tell her that. Even though I met her before, I guess I had the guts to [tell her today]."</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en-gb"> <p dir="ltr">"She [Venus Williams] said congratulations." <br /><br />"I told her thank you for everything that you did. I wouldn’t be here without you. I always wanted to tell her that."<br /><br />- <a href="https://twitter.com/CocoGauff?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@CocoGauff</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/Wimbledon?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#Wimbledon</a> <a href="https://t.co/lGUYiGnq3Q">pic.twitter.com/lGUYiGnq3Q</a></p> — Wimbledon (@Wimbledon) <a href="https://twitter.com/Wimbledon/status/1145764687574982657?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">1 July 2019</a></blockquote>

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