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Walking or running: for the same distance, which consumes more energy?

<div class="theconversation-article-body"><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/clement-lemineur-1529211">Clément Lemineur</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/universite-cote-dazur-2917">Université Côte d’Azur</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/clement-naveilhan-1495411">Clément Naveilhan</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/universite-cote-dazur-2917">Université Côte d’Azur</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/francois-dernoncourt-1495410">François Dernoncourt</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/universite-cote-dazur-2917">Université Côte d’Azur</a></em></p> <p>It’s Monday morning, the alarm goes off and it’s already 7:30 a.m. – and you’re 30 minutes late. Normally you need 45 minutes to walk the 3 kilometres to work, but this morning you’ll be running for 20 minutes. Yes, but by lunchtime you’re feeling more tired and you have the impression that you’ve expended more energy than usual on the trip. Yet you’ve covered the same distance as on the other days. How can this be?</p> <p>The calorie expenditure associated with any activity is called the “metabolic cost”, and corresponds to the energy consumed by our organs to cover a given distance. This metabolic cost can be determined by analysing the oxygen our bodies consume and the carbon dioxide they produce, we can estimate the amount of energy expended, and thus the metabolic cost. It was using this method that <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/692303/">researchers had already answered our question back in the 1970s</a>.</p> <p>Perhaps not surprisingly, running consumes more energy than walking for the same distance covered. But why?</p> <h2>Energy lost when running</h2> <p>Imagine you’re watching someone running. Now look closely at the vertical movement (up and down) of their pelvis and head. As you can see from the diagram below, when we run, the distance that our body moves up and down is greater than when we walk. To produce this vertical movement, the muscles of the lower limbs have to generate more force, and that consumes more energy, yet doesn’t bring us any closer to our destination. So when running, part of the energy expended is used to move our bodies <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16029949/">upward rather than forward</a>. The energy needed to cover those 3 km is therefore higher for running than for walking.</p> <figure class="align-center zoomable"><a href="https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=1000&amp;fit=clip"><img src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" sizes="(min-width: 1466px) 754px, (max-width: 599px) 100vw, (min-width: 600px) 600px, 237px" srcset="https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=287&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 600w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=287&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1200w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=287&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 1800w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=361&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 754w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=361&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1508w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/602769/original/file-20240625-18-xilv63.png?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=361&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 2262w" alt="Illustration of the oscillations of running and walking" /></a><figcaption><span class="caption">Running involves much greater vertical oscillation of the centre of mass than walking. This is the main reason why running consumes more energy than walking for the same distance covered.</span> <span class="attribution"><span class="source">François Dernoncourt</span>, <span class="license">Fourni par l'auteur</span></span></figcaption></figure> <p>This difference between walking and running is not confined to what happens during the activity itself. In fact, each physical exercise causes a delayed expenditure of energy, which is added to the expenditure during the activity.</p> <p>Taking this into account, it’s once again running that uses more energy than walking. Immediately after running your 3 km, the increased energy consumption (compared with resting) lasts for several minutes, mainly because of the increase in body temperature and the replenishment of energy reserves. This additional expenditure after running is <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22446673/">more than twice that observed after walking</a>, due to the difference in intensity between the two exercises.</p> <h2>It all depends on speed</h2> <p>Running therefore involves a higher calorie expenditure than walking for the same distance covered. But this is on condition that the walking speed considered is “normal” (around 5 km/h). So, if we walk very slowly, it will take us so long to cover the 3 km that the calorie expenditure will be greater in the end. This is because the body expends a certain amount of energy per unit of time no matter what, regardless of the activity performed (known as the “basal metabolic rate”).</p> <p>The same applies if the walking speed is very fast (<a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29925582/">more than 8 km/h</a>): running is more energy-efficient. Here, the coordination required to walk at such a speed means that we need to activate our muscles more, without being able to take advantage of the elasticity of our tendons, as is the case with running.</p> <p>Moreover, we have a very precise intuitive perception of the energy efficiency of a particular style of movement. If we’re on a treadmill whose speed gradually increases, the point at which we spontaneously switch from walking to running coincides with the <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096663622100120X">moment when it would become more energy-consuming to walk than to run</a>.</p> <figure class="align-center zoomable"><a href="https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=1000&amp;fit=clip"><img src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" sizes="(min-width: 1466px) 754px, (max-width: 599px) 100vw, (min-width: 600px) 600px, 237px" srcset="https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=395&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 600w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=395&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1200w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=395&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 1800w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=497&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 754w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=497&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1508w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/604700/original/file-20240703-17-4dlrj.jpg?ixlib=rb-4.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=497&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 2262w" alt="" /></a><figcaption><span class="caption">Modelling of metabolic cost (kilocalories expended per kilogram per kilometre covered) as a function of speed (kilometres per hour) for walking and running. The curves cross at a certain speed (purple line; around 8 km/h): this means that above this speed, walking becomes more energy-intensive than running. It’s at around this threshold speed that people spontaneously switch from walking to running.</span> <span class="attribution"><span class="source">François Dernoncourt, Adapted from Summerside et al</span>, <span class="license">Fourni par l'auteur</span></span></figcaption></figure> <p>In conclusion, because of greater oscillation of the centre of mass and increased energy expenditure after exercise, running to work is more energy-intensive than covering the same distance by walking. But remember, whether you choose to walk or run to work, the most important thing is that you’re already saving energy!<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/233943/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/clement-lemineur-1529211">Clément Lemineur</a>, Doctorant en Sciences du Mouvement Humain, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/universite-cote-dazur-2917">Université Côte d’Azur</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/clement-naveilhan-1495411">Clément Naveilhan</a>, Doctorant en Sciences du Mouvement Humain, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/universite-cote-dazur-2917">Université Côte d’Azur</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/francois-dernoncourt-1495410">François Dernoncourt</a>, Doctorant en Sciences du Mouvement Humain, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/universite-cote-dazur-2917">Université Côte d’Azur</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock </em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/walking-or-running-for-the-same-distance-which-consumes-more-energy-233943">original article</a>.</em></p> </div>

Body

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Popular TV host diagnosed with same condition as Bruce Willis

<p>Popular American TV host Wendy Williams has shared her diagnosis after being plagued by "hurtful rumours". </p> <p>The 59-year-old's medical team announced in a lengthy statement that she has been diagnosed with aphasia and frontotemporal dementia: the same conditions actor Bruce Willis is battling.</p> <p>The news comes after Williams' family confirmed she had checked in to a facility to treat cognitive issues.</p> <p>“Questions have been raised at times about Wendy’s ability to process information and many have speculated about Wendy’s condition, particularly when she began to lose words, act erratically at times, and have difficulty understanding financial transactions,” her medical team said.</p> <p>They said Williams' symptoms first began in 2023, and was diagnosed with the neurological conditions just weeks later after undergoing a series of tests. </p> <p>Her team said both conditions have “already presented significant hurdles in Wendy’s life”.</p> <p>“Wendy would not have received confirmation of these diagnoses were it not for the diligence of her current care team, who she chose, and the extraordinary work of the specialists at Weill Cornell Medicine,” they said.</p> <p>“Receiving a diagnosis has enabled Wendy to receive the medical care she requires.”</p> <p>Williams chose to share the news to “advocate for understanding” and to “raise awareness” for the difficult conditions. </p> <p>“Unfortunately, many individuals diagnosed with aphasia and frontotemporal dementia face stigma and misunderstanding, particularly when they begin to exhibit behavioural changes but have not yet received a diagnosis,” her team said.</p> <p>“There is hope that with early detection and far more empathy, the stigma associated with dementia will be eliminated, and those affected will receive the understanding, support, and care they deserve and need."</p> <p>“Wendy is still able to do many things for herself. Most importantly she maintains her trademark sense of humour and is receiving the care she requires to make sure she is protected and that her needs are addressed."</p> <p>“She is appreciative of the many kind thoughts and good wishes being sent her way.”</p> <p>The TV presenter has previously been open with her medical battle with Graves’ disease and lymphedema, as well as other significant challenges related to her health.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images </em></p>

Caring

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Sex And The City star dies aged 93

<p><em>Sex And The City </em>star Frances Sternhagen has died aged 93.</p> <p>The actress is known for her remarkable career, both on the stage and on-screen, with seven Tony Award nominations, passed away peacefully in her home on Monday night. </p> <p>Her representative, Sarah Fargo, announced the news to CNN on behalf of Sternhagen's family.</p> <p>“It is with great sadness we share the news that our dear mother, actress Frances Sternhagen, died peacefully of natural causes in New Rochelle, NY, on November 27, 2023 at the age of 93,” she told the publication. </p> <p>“She is survived by her six children, nine grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren.</p> <p>“A celebration of her remarkable career and life is planned for mid-January, near her 94th birthday. We continue to be inspired by her love and life.”</p> <blockquote class="instagram-media" style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/C0OhBNduiXt/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="14"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"> </div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <div style="padding: 12.5% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; margin-bottom: 14px; align-items: center;"> <div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(0px) translateY(7px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; height: 12.5px; transform: rotate(-45deg) translateX(3px) translateY(1px); width: 12.5px; flex-grow: 0; margin-right: 14px; margin-left: 2px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(9px) translateY(-18px);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 8px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 20px; width: 20px;"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 2px solid transparent; border-left: 6px solid #f4f4f4; border-bottom: 2px solid transparent; transform: translateX(16px) translateY(-4px) rotate(30deg);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: auto;"> <div style="width: 0px; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-right: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(16px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; flex-grow: 0; height: 12px; width: 16px; transform: translateY(-4px);"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-left: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(-4px) translateX(8px);"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center; margin-bottom: 24px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 224px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 144px;"> </div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/C0OhBNduiXt/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A post shared by John Carlin (@wassadamo)</a></p> </div> </blockquote> <p><span style="font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Open Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif;">Sternhagen's </span>son John Carlin took to Instagram to pay tribute to his late mum on Wednesday. </p> <p>“Frannie. Mom. Frances Sternhagen,” he began the post, with a series of pictures of the actress throughout her career. </p> <p>“On Monday night, Nov 27, she died peacefully at her home, a month and a half shy of her 94th birthday. I will post more soon but for now I just want to give thanks for the remarkable gift of an artist and human being that was Frances Sternhagen.</p> <p>“She was beloved by many. I’m very lucky I was able to call her my mom, my friend, my song and dance partner.</p> <p>“We were together last week, and we spoke Monday afternoon, said how much we loved and missed one another.</p> <p>“I was about to board a plane for London when I got the news, and am there now.</p> <p>“Set to perform some new songs (one of which was inspired by her) this weekend. She always encouraged my writing, and enjoyed my singing. I’ll fly back very early the next day.</p> <p>“Fly on, Frannie. The curtain goes down on a life so richly, passionately, humbly and generously lived. 🙏🏻❤️.”</p> <p>Sternhagen played the role of Bunny MacDougal, Trey's overbearing mother in <em>Sex and The City, </em>between 2000-2002. </p> <p>In the early 1990s she played Cliff Clavin’s mother Esther on <em>Cheers, </em>and was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award twice, with the third being for her role as Bunny. </p> <p>Aside from her work on screen, the actress was also a decorated stage performer, making her debut on broadway in 1955 at just 25-years-old. </p> <p><em>Images: Instagram</em></p>

Caring

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Tiny house, big dreams: How to take a trip and give back at the same time

<p dir="ltr">When it comes to getting away over the summer, there is no one size-fits-all option to accommodate everyone’s unique needs. </p> <p dir="ltr">Some of us may prefer an off-the-grid adventure to the bush to reconnect with nature, while others just can’t pass up an opportunity to lay on the beach and frolic in the ocean. </p> <p dir="ltr">But if there’s one thing every holiday goer can agree on, it's the absolute need to relax. </p> <p dir="ltr">Luckily, <a href="https://reflectionsholidayparks.com.au/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Reflections Holiday & Caravan Parks</a> has something for everyone this summer. </p> <p dir="ltr">From blissful camping and caravanning sites to luxurious tiny homes and creature-comfort cabin accommodation, Reflections is proud to be New South Wales’ largest holiday park operator, showing 2 million visitors a year the magic of the outside.</p> <p dir="ltr">You can feel good about your stay with Reflections, as the company is the first and only holiday park group in Australia that is certified as a <a href="https://www.socialtraders.com.au/news/what-is-a-social-enterprise" target="_blank" rel="noopener">social enterprise</a>.</p> <p dir="ltr">That means the profits from the parks go back into the Crown land nature reserves the company manages to protect and nurture the land, for their lasting preservation and the community’s enjoyment while also giving back to local areas.</p> <p dir="ltr">A holiday here is essentially giving back to the local environment and community.</p> <p dir="ltr">I was lucky enough to be invited for a trip away with Reflections, and stayed in a charming Tiny House at the Jimmy’s Beach park in Hawk’s Nest on the mid-coast of NSW. </p> <p dir="ltr">Despite bringing the dreary Sydney rain with me up the coast, my stay with Reflections was nothing short of a dream. </p> <p dir="ltr">The tiny house provided all the comforts we needed on an overcast weekend, with the cosy atmosphere providing the perfect place to fully unwind from busy city life. </p> <p dir="ltr">Despite being, by name, a tiny house, the one bedroom home provided everything we needed, including a comfy bed, spacious shower, a large lounge and TV, as well as everything you could need to cook your own meals. </p> <p dir="ltr">A spacious deck was also most welcome, giving you the chance to sit in the sun and take in the picturesque nature around you, while spotting the best of Australia's wildlife. </p> <p dir="ltr">As the sun came out, we were able to indulge in all that Reflections had to offer, including bush walks, trips to the beach and even a dip in the pool. </p> <p dir="ltr">The sense of community in Reflections holiday parks is palpable, as making friends and meeting new people is encouraged and fostered, with a welcoming environment making it easy to hear the life stories of others as you cross paths in communal areas. </p> <p dir="ltr">The holiday parks are also perfect for families, with playgrounds available for the little ones, and even an ice cream truck making the rounds while playing Waltzing Matilda to signal the arrival of delicious treats. </p> <p dir="ltr">So, when booking your summer trips away, whether you’re after a quiet beach stay, a family-friendly destination, or an exploration off the beaten track, a stay at a Reflections Holiday Park is sure to leave you refreshed, reconnected, and ready for whatever comes your way.</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image credits: Supplied</em></p>

Domestic Travel

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All-girls Catholic school bans same-sex couples from formal

<p dir="ltr">An all-girls Catholic school in the Sydney suburb of Kingsgrove has refused to let same sex couples attend the year 12 formal together, prompting widespread outrage. </p> <p dir="ltr">Students at St Ursula’s College have been vocal in their disapproval of the rule, banding together to form a petition to let same sex dates attend the end of year dance.</p> <p dir="ltr">The petition on <a href="https://www.change.org/p/allow-same-sex-couples-at-st-ursula-s-school-formal?source_location=petitions_browse">Change.org</a> has already racked up thousands of signatures in a matter of weeks, after being created by concerned student Abbie Frankland, who labelled the policy “discriminatory”.</p> <p dir="ltr">In her petition, Ms Frankland expressed the sentiments of the LGBTQ+ community at the school, voicing her concern for the exclusionary rule. </p> <p dir="ltr">“My girlfriend and I, along with many other students at St. Ursula’s in Kingsgrove NSW, Australia, have been eagerly awaiting the school formal for months,” she wrote. </p> <p dir="ltr">“We’ve purchased non-refundable tickets and outfits in anticipation of this event. However, we’ve recently discovered that the school does not allow same-sex couples to attend the formal together.”</p> <p dir="ltr">The policy also ignited a fire within the student body to push for change.</p> <p dir="ltr">“In Australia, 61.6 percent of people voted ‘Yes’ in a national survey on marriage equality, showing widespread support for LGBTQ+ rights across the country,” Ms Frankland added, referencing the Australian Bureau of Statistics. </p> <p dir="ltr">“Yet, despite this clear public sentiment towards inclusivity and acceptance, schools like St Ursula’s continue to uphold discriminatory policies.”</p> <p dir="ltr">The petition, which has racked up over 2,000 signatures so far, calls for the school to realign itself with the broader values of inclusivity and equality. </p> <p dir="ltr">It also calls on the college to allow all students, regardless of sexual orientation, to bring their chosen partner to the school formal at the end of the year. </p> <p dir="ltr">“By signing this petition, you’re standing up against discrimination and supporting equal rights for all students at St Ursula’s School in Kingsgrove, NSW, Australia,” Ms Frankland said.</p> <p dir="ltr">Some parents have also called for the ban to be lifted, noting that the harsh rule has put unnecessary stress on students as they are dealing with their HSC exams. </p> <p dir="ltr">“It’s totally taken the kids’ focus off the HSC,” a concerned mother told Ben Fordham Live on 2GB. </p> <p dir="ltr">The mother said her daughter planned to take another girl to the formal, saying that, “She automatically was upset - crying in the car,” when she found out about the ban. </p> <p dir="ltr">Fordham was quick to point out a flaw in the school’s policy, pointing out that the woman’s 18-year-old daughter could legally marry a woman but not take one to her formal.</p> <p dir="ltr">Another parent also called into the radio show, saying, “It’s 2023 – what’s going on?”</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image credits: Google Maps</em></p>

Legal

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Twin sisters give birth on the same day

<p dir="ltr">Identical twins Gillianne Gogas and Nicole Patrikakos have lived their whole lives in synchronicity after being born together 36 years ago. </p> <p dir="ltr">Now, the women have welcomed their own children into the world on the same day, in the same hospital. </p> <p dir="ltr">The extraordinary coincidence happened in Melborune’s Epworth Freemasons hospital, with both Nicole and Gillianne welcoming healthy baby boys just hours apart. </p> <p dir="ltr">Gillianne said they both felt a mix of emotions over their matching maternity experience.</p> <p dir="ltr">"The timing, you just can't plan something like that. So yeah, disbelief, shock, excitement, all of those emotions," Gillianne told 9News.</p> <p dir="ltr">Gillianne's son, Alexander, arrived on August 22 at 1:20pm, followed by sister Nicole's baby boy, William, a mere five hours later.</p> <p dir="ltr">Nicole said the sisters had the same due date, so the duplicate deliveries were no surprise to the identical twin sisters.</p> <p dir="ltr">"(We were) very close growing up. We have always done everything together so this is just another example of that," she said.</p> <p dir="ltr">Gillianne said they had nine months of pregnancy to process their "tandem" due date.</p> <p dir="ltr">"And yet it is still quite unbelievable," she said.</p> <p dir="ltr">However, the synchronicity didn’t end there, as the babies were both delivered by the same obstetrician, Dr Joseph Sgroi, who said the births were a first for him during his time as a doctor. </p> <p dir="ltr">"It is not something that is common. It is not commonplace for even sisters to give birth on the same time or on the same day," he said.</p> <p dir="ltr">The newborns even had the same birth weight, a healthy 3.5 kilograms.</p> <p dir="ltr">"Oh yes that came as another surprise," Gillianne said.</p> <p dir="ltr">"Exactly the same," Nicole said.</p> <p dir="ltr">Dr Sgroi said the babies would biologically be closer to brothers than cousins, with Nicole and Gillianne hoping they would share the same special relationship as their mothers. </p> <p dir="ltr">"Hopefully they will be as close as we are because it really is a special bond that we have," Nicole said.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Nine News</em></p>

Family & Pets

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Chris Dawson's twin brother accused of underage sex

<p>Paul Dawson, the twin sibling of Chris Dawson, who is both a convicted murderer and a perpetrator of child sexual abuse, is now facing allegations from several women claiming he engaged in sexual activity with them when they were minors during their time as students – per <a href="https://9now.nine.com.au/60-minutes/wife-killer-chris-dawsons-twin-accused-by-four-women-of-underage-sex/8b9b9345-e1d6-4f3d-9bcc-d3f3d4c06603" target="_blank" rel="noopener">60 Minutes</a>.</p> <p>One of Paul Dawson's former students at Forest High School, Shelley Oates-Wilding, shared her experience on a <em>60 Minutes</em> interview, detailing her time during the early 1980s when she was a teenager.</p> <p>Multiple women who attended schools in Sydney's Northern Beaches, where Paul Dawson taught, have also come forward, asserting that the now 75-year-old engaged in sexual relations with them when they were underage.</p> <p>Prior to their teaching careers, both Paul and Chris Dawson were prominent figures in the world of rugby league and modelling. However, their roles as educators have recently come under intense scrutiny as law enforcement reopened investigations into the suspected murder of Lynette Dawson.</p> <p>Although the focus had been primarily on Chris Dawson until now, serious questions now arise about Paul Dawson's behaviour. Shelley's public disclosure unveils disturbing details about how Paul Dawson targeted her. In an exclusive interview with <em>60 Minutes</em>, Shelley revealed that she and Paul spent considerable time socialising with Chris and his young mistress, forming two couples of teachers and students. Shelley alleges that Paul engaged in sexual activity with her at various locations across Sydney's Northern Beaches.</p> <p>The experiences she recalls were intimate and occurred within settings like fitness classes, store rooms, and pools. At the time, the Dawson twins, popular and attractive, garnered admiration from their students, making any attention they showed highly flattering.</p> <p>Shelley reflects on the naivety of youth, sharing that as a 15- and 16-year-old, she lacked the awareness to recognise the grooming that was occurring. She was also a babysitter for Paul's children, which sometimes led to overnight stays.</p> <p>Given the legal framework of the time, the Crimes Act 1900 (NSW) deemed it illegal for a teacher to engage in sexual activity with a female student under the age of 17. Shelley vividly remembers an encounter with Paul shortly before the news of Lyn Dawson's disappearance emerged. Paul expressed distress, telling her that something terrible had occurred, and he could no longer maintain their connection. Shelley recalls pondering the severity of the situation at the time.</p> <p>As news circulated about Chris Dawson's missing wife, Shelley sensed a darker narrative than Lyn simply running away. Her personal experiences led her to believe that there was more to the story.</p> <p>"At the beginning of school, I vividly remember going to see him," she said on the program. "He said to me with this extremely pained look on his face that something terrible has happened and he can't see me anymore. I remember thinking, what could be that terrible?"</p> <p>Decades have passed since Shelley's time as Paul Dawson's student. She has since relocated to Hawaii, distancing herself from the Northern Beaches environment where she grew up. While the scars of her childhood experiences can be lasting, Shelley Oates-Wilding channels her journey into positive efforts. She founded Ikaika Hawaii, where she implements holistic programs to guide young individuals toward understanding right from wrong, cultivating perseverance, and embracing respect.</p> <p>She has found the confidence to speak out on Paul Dawson because she knows there are other victims who are in a worse situation than her.</p> <p>Shelley maintains that Paul Dawson likely remains oblivious to any wrongdoing. She perceives a tendency for the Dawson twins to deceive effortlessly, suggesting that their self-perception is intertwined with the narratives they've woven.</p> <p><em>Images: Nine / 60 Minutes</em></p>

Legal

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“My sex statue is famous”: Larry Emdur reacts to X-rated home reveal

<p dir="ltr"><em>The Morning Show</em> host Larry Emdur has been making a name for himself in the world of game show TV for a few years hosting<em> The Chase Australia</em>, but despite his success, he’s still had his sights set on one more goal: making an appearance on the<em> Have You Been Paying Attention?</em> series. </p> <p dir="ltr">And now, it seems like Larry’s dream has come true, though not exactly in the way he might have expected. </p> <p dir="ltr">The popular host and his wife, Sylvie, have had their hands full recently trying to sell their Kangaroo Valley retreat, better known as Sky Ridge. </p> <p dir="ltr">And while pictures of the property and its picturesque surrounds are available thanks to Belle Property, it wasn’t the property’s luxury four bedrooms or sweeping views that saw it get a mention on the Channel 10 game show.</p> <p dir="ltr">Instead, it was a statue situated in the home’s main living space that caught their attention, with <em>Have You Been Paying Attention? </em>host Tom Gleisner asking his panel if they knew why Larry’s holiday home had gone viral throughout the week. </p> <p dir="ltr">Ed Kavalee was quick to suggest that it was because “the price was right”, while Sam Pang asked if it was because “it has to do with the backyard, they found a shallow grave?”</p> <p dir="ltr">Kavalee eventually got to the right answer, revealing that “there was, like, a pornographic statue in there.”</p> <p dir="ltr">The statue in question could be found perched on top of Larry’s dining room table, and appeared to catch two people caught up in the moment having “X-rated raunchy sex”, as Larry himself put it. </p> <p dir="ltr">The <em>HYBPA?</em> audience found it hilarious, and thankfully, Larry was more than happy to see the funny side of it all, too. </p> <p dir="ltr">Taking to social media after learning about his unexpected cameo, Larry shared that he’d “always wanted to be on <em>Have You Been Paying Attention?</em> but not for a disgraceful reason like this.”</p> <p dir="ltr">“My sex statue is famous,” he added, before sharing details of the property and that “YES !!!! <em>The Price is Right</em>”.</p> <blockquote class="instagram-media" style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/reel/CttOo9pByBy/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="14"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"> </div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <div style="padding: 12.5% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; margin-bottom: 14px; align-items: center;"> <div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(0px) translateY(7px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; height: 12.5px; transform: rotate(-45deg) translateX(3px) translateY(1px); width: 12.5px; flex-grow: 0; margin-right: 14px; margin-left: 2px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(9px) translateY(-18px);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 8px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 20px; width: 20px;"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 2px solid transparent; border-left: 6px solid #f4f4f4; border-bottom: 2px solid transparent; transform: translateX(16px) translateY(-4px) rotate(30deg);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: auto;"> <div style="width: 0px; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-right: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(16px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; flex-grow: 0; height: 12px; width: 16px; transform: translateY(-4px);"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-left: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(-4px) translateX(8px);"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center; margin-bottom: 24px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 224px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 144px;"> </div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" href="https://www.instagram.com/reel/CttOo9pByBy/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A post shared by @larryemdur</a></p> </div> </blockquote> <p dir="ltr">Larry’s fans raced to express their amusement, with dozens sharing laughing emojis, while others assured him that the feature piece was certainly “a work of art”. </p> <p dir="ltr">“Love a good conversation piece,” one user said. </p> <p dir="ltr">“It’s…… unique,” another added. </p> <p dir="ltr">“Can’t stand that show,” one confessed. “But at least this time they are talking about something interesting”.</p> <p dir="ltr">And one other agreed that it had been “so funny”, noting that it was also a “nice house”, but that most importantly, they were sorry you weren't nominated for a gold logie, you sure deserved it”. </p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Images: realestate.com.au, Getty</em></p>

Real Estate

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Don’t blame women for low libido. Sexual sparks fly when partners do their share of chores – including calling the plumber

<p>When a comic about “mental load” <a href="https://english.emmaclit.com/2017/05/20/you-shouldve-asked/">went viral in 2017</a>, it sparked conversations about the invisible workload women carry. Even when women are in paid employment, they remember their mother-in-law’s birthday, know what’s in the pantry and organise the plumber. This mental load often goes unnoticed.</p> <p>Women also <a href="https://theconversation.com/yet-again-the-census-shows-women-are-doing-more-housework-now-is-the-time-to-invest-in-interventions-185488">continue to do more housework</a> and childcare than their male partners.</p> <p>This burden has been exacerbated over the recent pandemic (homeschooling anyone?), <a href="https://theconversation.com/planning-stress-and-worry-put-the-mental-load-on-mothers-will-2022-be-the-year-they-share-the-burden-172599">leaving women</a> feeling exhausted, anxious and resentful.</p> <p>As sexuality researchers, we wondered, with all this extra work, do women have any energy left for sex?</p> <p>We decided to explore how mental load affects intimate relationships. We focused on female sexual desire, as “low desire” affects <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1743609520307566">more than 50% of women</a> and is <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0091302217300079">difficult to treat</a>.</p> <p>Our study, published in the <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00224499.2022.2079111">Journal of Sex Research</a>, shows women in equal relationships (in terms of housework and the mental load) are more satisfied with their relationships and, in turn, feel more sexual desire than those in unequal relationships.</p> <p> </p> <h2>How do we define low desire?</h2> <p>Low desire is tricky to explore. More than simply the motivation to have sex, women describe sexual desire as a state-of-being and a need for closeness.</p> <p>Adding to this complexity is the fluctuating nature of female desire that changes in response to life experiences and the <a href="https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20160630-the-enduring-enigma-of-female-desire">quality of relationships</a>.</p> <p>Relationships are especially important to female desire: relationship dissatisfaction is a <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18410300/">top risk factor</a> for low desire in women, even more than the physiological impacts of age and menopause. Clearly, relationship factors are critical to understanding female sexual desire.</p> <p>As a way of addressing the complexity of female desire, a <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10508-018-1212-9">recent theory</a> proposed two different types of desire: dyadic desire is the sexual desire one feels for another, whereas solo desire is about individual feelings.</p> <p>Not surprisingly, dyadic desire is intertwined with the dynamics of the relationship, while solo desire is more amorphous and involves feeling good about yourself as a sexual being (feeling sexy), without needing validation from another.</p> <h2>Assessing the link</h2> <p>Our research acknowledged the nuances of women’s desire and its strong connection to relationship quality by exploring how fairness in relationships might affect desire.</p> <p>The research involved asking 299 Australian women aged 18 to 39 questions about desire and relationships.</p> <p>These questions included assessments of housework, mental load – such as who organised social activities and made financial arrangements – and who had more leisure time.</p> <p>We compared three groups:</p> <ul> <li>relationships where women perceived the work as equally shared equal (the “equal work” group)</li> <li>when the woman felt she did more work (the “women’s work” group)</li> <li>when women thought that their partner contributed more (the “partner’s work” group).</li> </ul> <p>We then explored how these differences in relationship equity impacted female sexual desire.</p> <h2>What we found</h2> <p>The findings were stark. Women who rated their relationships as equal also reported greater relationship satisfaction and higher dyadic desire (intertwined with the dynamics of the relationship) than other women in the study.</p> <p>Unfortunately (and perhaps, tellingly), the partner’s work group was too small to draw any substantial conclusions.</p> <p>However, for the women’s work group it was clear their dyadic desire was diminished. This group was also less satisfied in their relationships overall.</p> <p>We found something interesting when turning our attention to women’s solo desire. While it seems logical that relationship inequities might affect all aspects of women’s sexuality, our results showed that fairness did not significantly impact solo desire.</p> <p>This suggests women’s low desire isn’t an internal sexual problem to be treated with <a href="https://www.insider.com/guides/health/yoni-eggs#:%7E:text=Yoni%20eggs%20are%20egg%2Dshaped,bacterial%20infections%20and%20intense%20pain.">mindfulness apps and jade eggs</a>, but rather one that needs effort from both partners.</p> <p>Other relationship factors are involved. We found children increased the workload for women, leading to lower relationship equity and consequently, lower sexual desire.</p> <p> </p> <p>Relationship length also played a role. Research shows long-term relationships are <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10508-018-1175-x">associated with</a> decreasing desire for women, and this is often attributed to the tedium of over-familiarity (think of the bored, sexless <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kBq-Nyo0lQg">wives in 90s sitcoms</a>).</p> <p>However our research indicates relationship boredom is not the reason, with the increasing inequity over the course of a relationship often the cause of women’s disinterest in sex.</p> <p>The longer some relationships continue, the more unfair they become, lowering women’s desire. This may be because women take on managing their partner’s relationships, as well as their own (“It’s time we had your best friend over for dinner”).</p> <p>And while domestic housework may start as equally shared, over time, women <a href="https://www.abs.gov.au/media-centre/media-releases/women-spent-more-time-men-unpaid-work-may">tend to do more</a> household tasks.</p> <h2>What about same-sex couples?</h2> <p>Same-sex couples have <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/fare.12293">more equitable relationships</a>.</p> <p>However, we found the same link between equity and desire for women in same-sex relationships, although it was much stronger for heteronormative couples.</p> <p>A sense of fairness within a relationship is fundamental to all women’s satisfaction and sexual desire.</p> <h2>What happens next?</h2> <p>Our findings suggest one response to low desire in women could be to address the amount of work women have to take on in relationships.</p> <p>The link between relationship satisfaction and female sexual desire has been firmly established in <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10508-018-1175-x">previous research</a> but our findings explain how this dynamic works: women’s sense of fairness within a relationship forecasts their contentment, which has repercussions on their desire for their partner.</p> <p>To translate our results into clinical practice, we could run trials to confirm if lowering women’s mental load results in greater sexual desire.</p> <p>We could have a “housework and mental load ban” for a sample of women reporting low sexual desire and record if there are changes in their reported levels of desire.</p> <p>Or perhaps women’s sexual partners could do the dishes tonight and see what happens.</p> <p><em>Image credit: Shutterstock</em></p> <p><em>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://theconversation.com/dont-blame-women-for-low-libido-sexual-sparks-fly-when-partners-do-their-share-of-chores-including-calling-the-plumber-185401" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Conversation</a>. </em></p>

Relationships

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Can death on the screen feel the same as a ‘real’ one?

<p>Death is a part of life, an adage usually reserved for those who physically exist in our lives – family, friends, colleagues, acquaintances. So what happens when a profound death experience happens on the screen? Is that still a legitimate experience of mourning?</p> <p>Last week, the popular TV show <em>Succession</em> had a significant “on screen” death - where even the cast filming the scene spoke as if the response to the trauma had a very <a href="https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/tv/news/succession-episode-three-logan-dead-b2317366.html">real feeling</a>. </p> <p>In the same way as the cast, social media reactions to the sudden and unexpected death of a person with a complex character, after four seasons of growing to understand them, can feel like the death of someone you actually know. </p> <p>The <a href="https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rstb.2017.0267#d3e765">research</a> behind this phenomenon can be found as far back as the 1970s when early understandings around the death of a main character on children’s television served to provide real world insight into the irreversibility of death as a universal experience.</p> <p>Over time, as popular culture and television became more nuanced, the diversity of the ways in which death occurred in fictional programs began to <a href="https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/5234_Bryant__Death,_Dying,_Dead,_Popular_Culture.pdf">replicate the complexity</a> of “real” loss in our lives. Via television, we get access to catastrophic loss, multiple casualty events, loss after significant illness – as well as seeing how death impacts the people left behind.</p> <p>In the most recent episode of <em>Succession</em>, we also see what happens when a death occurs involving a person where their character or relationship to others is strained. We see ways in which grief is not always a byproduct of love.</p> <h2>Why does this grief feel real from an armchair perspective?</h2> <p>Death on screen can also act as a trigger or a reminder of the losses we have endured.</p> <p>When a show realistically portrays grief in its purest form, the emotive or reflective reaction can unlock our own grief. Engaging with the small screen is an overt act of escapism, often for entertainment. We might be switching on a program with the intention of relaxation, only to be met with trauma and sadness.</p> <p>When a sudden loss is brought into our lounge rooms, or via the devices on our laps, we experience shock, confusion and anger about the abruptness of an event, just like the feelings we can experience when loss happens suddenly in our real lives.</p> <p>Safe reporting of sudden and traumatic death on fictional TV shows is not covered by media reporting guidelines. Warnings prior to a scene, or consistent information at the end of an episode about seeking additional support, might be minimal. </p> <p><a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0266722">Recent research</a> identifies multiple contexts related to warnings where TV shows may note that an episode will explore death, however, the complexity of how this might be portrayed is limited.</p> <figure> <h2>What is this grief called?</h2> <p>While there is no rulebook for grief, reacting emotionally to a small screen death can bring about concerns that we look silly or that we lack awareness of the distinction between reality and fiction. This form of <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/00302228211014775?casa_token=qZ3_RQR6xw0AAAAA%3Awv53_SeeKUgDIH34Z3diViJjcghG-dJb39n--oZP5-Gz-vCRn8RTQOmNxVFZ34fnNjdrwNDriq8GCg">parasocial grieving</a>, described as having feelings attached to a pseudo-relationship, does feel real, does have consequences and does need space to be managed. </p> <p>We don’t all watch the same shows, we don’t all respond to the death of a character the same way, we might even struggle to understand why people have the reactions they do when a TV death occurs. I would encourage you to pause for a moment and remember the ones that did get under our skin. </p> <p>In 1985, Australian viewers lived through the death of <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2020/feb/06/how-mollys-death-on-a-country-practice-touched-a-nation-the-writers-room-was-shedding-tears">Molly from <em>A Country Practice</em></a>, where the final image of a mother’s end-stage cancer diagnosis played out while watching her daughter fly a kite. </p> <p>Teens watching Sarah Michelle Gellar stumble across the sudden untimely death of her mother in <em><a href="https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2017/03/the-body-the-radical-empathy-of-buffys-best-episode/519051/">Buffy the Vampire Slayer </a></em>shaped many feelings when there is a catastrophic loss without warning. </p> <p>In the last decade, the <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/culture/australia-culture-blog/2013/aug/08/offspring-fans-mourn-patrick">sudden death of Patrick from <em>Offspring </em></a>had people legitimately calling in sick from work the next day. </p> <p>The <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kAgpbPIVy0M">global reaction</a> to the Red Wedding scene in <em>Game of Thrones</em> had forums on Reddit unpacking why so many characters were murdered and sharing the impact of the sights and sounds of blood and murder and traumatic grief.</p> <p>We engage in a social contract when we connect to a TV show. We expect to be removed from our real life and engage in the viewing of other spaces. Death in those spaces – and the reactions to that loss – can feel as if they break that contract.</p> <p><em>Image credits: HBO</em></p> <p><em>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://theconversation.com/can-death-on-the-screen-feel-the-same-as-a-real-one-203549" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Conversation</a>. </em></p> </figure>

TV

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As the US pushes to make daylight saving permanent, should Australia move in the same direction?

<p>Sunday marked the end of the Daylight Saving Time (DST) in eastern Australia, but there are many who would like to see it last longer or permanently.</p> <p>Twice a year, New South Wales, Victoria, Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania and South Australia make this shift. Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory do not change times. In those states the issue has been hotly debated for years. But what would be the benefit of making time permanent, and is it feasible?</p> <p>In the United States, the push to fix time has gathered pace, with a bipartisan bill <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2023/03/02/us/politics/daylight-savings-bill-marco-rubio.html">reintroduced</a> to the House this month. The Sunshine Protection Act is set to bring uniformity in fixing the time, starting from November 2023. If enacted, it means daylight saving would be permanent across the US.</p> <p>The bill passed the Senate in March 2022. It was received at the House, but Americans are split on whether they prefer permanent daylight saving time or permanent standard time – the bill then expired and so had to be reintroduced.</p> <p>The proponents argue the biannual ritual of switching time <a href="https://healthnews.com/news/forwarding-time-potentially-a-health-hazard-expert-suggests/">is a health hazard</a> leading to insomnia, decline in mental health, increased risk of hospitalisations and accidents. The solution, they argue, is to <a href="https://fortune.com/well/2023/03/06/daylight-saving-time-is-hurting-your-health/">restore</a> permanent, year-round standard time.</p> <p>Would fixing time permanently have benefits in Australia?</p> <h2>Why the US is considering fixing permanent time</h2> <p>One of the US policy’s goals is to reduce energy consumption. However, according to the latest research, contrary to the policy’s intent,<a href="https://direct.mit.edu/rest/article-abstract/93/4/1172/57919/Does-Daylight-Saving-Time-Save-Energy-Evidence">daylight saving caused</a> increased electricity demand in the US. Research has also found it <a href="https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=981688">does not conserve electricity in Australia</a>. </p> <p>Overwhelmingly, recent research opposes the current situation of changing the clocks twice year. In particular, the loss of one hour of sleep in spring has been <a href="https://www.bmj.com/content/380/bmj.p622.full">linked</a> to an increase in heart attacks, strokes, road accidents and negative mood. </p> <p>Moreover, with mobile phones available in offices and bedrooms, the shift to daylight saving was shown to <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22369272/">result in a dramatic increase</a> in “cyberloafing”.</p> <p>On the Monday following the switch, <a href="https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2009-12532-013">employees sustain more workplace injuries</a> and injuries of greater severity, according an analysis of data from the US Department of Labor and Mine Safety and Health Administration between 1983-2006, although there is a decrease in injuries when employees are gaining one hour of sleep. </p> <p>In a study of Australian suicide data from 1971 to 2001, researchers found <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1111/j.1479-8425.2007.00331.x">a rise in male suicide rates</a> in the weeks following the commencement of daylight saving, concluding the shifts could be destabilising for vulnerable people.</p> <p>The <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35622532/">health evidence</a> is, in fact, contrary to idea behind the current legislation and instead suggests a permanent switch to standard time may offer the maximum health and public safety benefits.</p> <p>Florida Senator Marco Rubio, who is strongly supporting the bill, <a href="https://www.marca.com/en/lifestyle/us-news/2022/11/03/6363f0ab46163fe7848b4571.html">told the Senate, "</a>There’s some strong science behind it that is now showing and making people aware of the harm that clock-switching has. I know this is not the most important issue confronting America, but it’s one of those issues where there’s a lot of agreement. If we can get this passed, we don’t have to do this stupidity anymore. Pardon the pun, but this is an idea whose time has come."</p> <h2>Australian legislation - move to uniformity</h2> <p>Standard time legislation dates back to 1890s. That is when jurisdictions enacted uniform legislation related to standard Greenwich Mean Time. For example, Tasmania fixed the time of the <a href="https://www.legislation.tas.gov.au/view/whole/html/inforce/2003-12-01/act-1895-004">150th meridian of longitude east of Greenwich</a> and Western Australia <a href="https://www.legislation.wa.gov.au/legislation/statutes.nsf/law_a772.html">declared the mean time of the 120th meridian</a> as the standard time. At that stage, the legislation was consistent. This continued until the daylight saving debate commenced. </p> <p>Daylight saving was first considered at the Premiers’ Conference in May 1915. During the first and second world wars, national daylight time operated in Australia. Tasmania and Victoria introduced daylight saving in 1916. In Tasmania, the act was repealed by the Daylight-Saving Repeal Act 1917 (Tas). In 1967, Tasmania again introduced daylight savings. </p> <p>By 1990, <a href="https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-981-19-3292-2">the jurisdictions were changing the dates</a> on which to introduce daylight savings, and their positions were not uniform. </p> <p>Liberal Senator Paul Calvert <a href="https://www.theage.com.au/national/calls-for-pm-to-set-daylight-saving-dates-20051113-ge18b2.html">described</a> the “maze of different times” as a “shackle on the economy, as well as causing interruptions to work and family balance”. </p> <p>Then-prime minister John Howard <a href="https://www.theage.com.au/national/calls-for-pm-to-set-daylight-saving-dates-20051113-ge18b2.html">stated</a>: “I think it’s a great pity that we have this month when Tasmania and NSW and Victoria are on different time zones.” </p> <p>Starting from September 1 2005, all jurisdictions adopted the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) standard. Following long deliberations, in April 2007 they agreed on a uniform start and end date. </p> <p>Queensland, WA and the NT have fixed permanent time. </p> <p>South Australia became an international anomaly by having 30 minutes difference, rather than full hour, <a href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-04-12/business-backs-sa-time-zone-shift,-but-some-regions-worried/6385030">to achieve a compromise</a> between strong advocacy groups within the jurisdiction.</p> <p>One of the arguments against fixing is geographical location. Tasmania has more drastic variation in sun activity compared to Northern Territory. The scientific solution would be to <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2019.00944/full#B47">fix the time</a> but reassign the regions to the actual sun-clock based time zones.</p> <p>Where does all this leave us? While daylight saving is not the most pressing problem facing Australia today, it may be that soon enough, the scientific evidence and practical convenience of fixing time might be preferred to biannual shifts.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://theconversation.com/as-the-us-pushes-to-make-daylight-saving-permanent-should-australia-move-in-the-same-direction-202627" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Conversation</a>. </em></p>

Legal

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Couple with the same name share the story of their unique path to love

<p>Married couple Nunzia and Nunzio Varricchio took sharing to the extreme on the day of their births. </p> <p>With matching Christian names, the pair were born with mere hours between them in the same Italian village, with the same midwife overseeing both occasions. </p> <p>As their daughter, Vicki Brunello, explained to<em> 7 News</em>, “[the midwife] happened to be Dad’s grandmother. She delivered my dad, hopped on her bike, and a few hours later she delivered my mum.”</p> <p>Apparently, that same grandmother had joked that she’d found her grandson a girlfriend. And although she hadn’t been (entirely) serious at the time, it turns out she’d been right on the money. </p> <p>Cut to 15 years later, when Nunzio decided that he’d ask his partner-in-name to be his girlfriend - just as his grandmother had predicted. </p> <p>Nunzio believed that it had been “love at first sight”, although it seems that Nunzia didn’t quite share his opinion. Although she did eventually fall for him, it took “a little bit of time” to get to the same point. </p> <p>As she put it, “I didn’t say yes straight away.” </p> <p>Nor did the couple make it official immediately. Nunzio and his family actually moved to Australia in the 1960s, far from the village where the two had grown up. </p> <p>He made the decision to farewell Nunzia before he joined his family overseas, and while he might have been hoping for a sweet moment for the subject of his affections, Nunzia - once again - had other ideas. </p> <p>He had hoped to give her a kiss, even going so far as to tell her as much, but as Nunzia explained, “I said ‘forget about it’.” </p> <p>And as she added, she’d even threatened to throw a bucket on his head, far from the heartfelt goodbye he’d envisioned. </p> <p>Nunzia was determined not to be forgotten, and Nunzio was in no position to do so. Writing to her regularly, he told her all about his new life in Australia, and although she took “a little longer” to respond to him, she still did, with the two remaining in constant - if not a little irregular - contact. </p> <p>But even Nunzia couldn’t play hard to get forever, and at just 21 years old, she packed her bags and moved to join Nunzio in Australia, with the couple marrying soon after. </p> <p>However, their shared history decided the time had come to cause a little chaos, with Australian authorities assuming they’d made a mistake on their paperwork while registering their marriage. </p> <p>The issue? The similarities in their applications - their matching names, birthdays, and places of births. It was one they unfortunately encountered again when trying to organise passports. </p> <p>As for problems with their life, neither had anything to report - nor did their three children and six grandchildren, who claimed they’d never so much as seen the 80-year-old Nunzio and Nunzia argue. </p> <p>Nunzio put their success in marriage down to their amicable conflict resolution strategy, and explained that after their wedding, his wife had informed him to “keep quiet” if she started arguing while upset. </p> <p>From there, he said, they simply “cool down and we don’t argue.” </p> <p>“Dad’s a big softie,” daughter Vicki added, “you know, and there’s a lot of love.” </p> <p>“We’re very happy,” Nunzia agreed. </p> <p><em>Images: 7 News</em></p>

Relationships

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Lie detection tests have worked the same way for 3,000 years – and they’re still hopelessly inaccurate

<p>Popular culture is fascinated with the ability to detect liars. Lie detector tests are a staple of police dramas, and TV shows such as Poker Face feature “human polygraphs” who detect deception by picking up tell-tale signs in people’s behaviour.</p> <p>Records of attempts to detect lies, whether by technical means or by skilled observers, go back at least 3,000 years. Forensic science lie detection techniques have become <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-1338.2005.00166.x">increasingly popular</a> since the invention of the polygraph early in the 20th century, with the latest methods involving advanced brain imaging.</p> <p>Proponents of lie detection technology sometimes <a href="https://www.press.umich.edu/3091709/lying_brain">make grandiose claims</a>, such as a <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-022-09566-y">recent paper</a> that said “with the help of forensic science and its new techniques, crimes can be easily solved”.</p> <p>Despite these claims, an infallible lie detection method has yet to be found. In fact, most lie detection methods don’t detect lies at all – instead, they register the physiological or behaviour signs of stress or fear.</p> <h2>From dry rice to red-hot irons</h2> <p>The <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1529100610390861">earliest recorded lie detection method</a> was used in China, around 1000 BC. It involved suspects placing rice in their mouths then spitting it out: wet rice indicated innocence, while dry rice meant guilty.</p> <p>In India, around 900 BC, <a href="http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2844&amp;context=jclc">one method</a> used to detect poisoners was observations of shaking. In ancient Greece a rapid pulse rate was taken to indicate deceit.</p> <p>The Middle Ages saw barbaric forms of lie detection used in Europe, such as the red-hot iron method which involved suspected criminals placing their tongue, often multiple times, on a red-hot iron. Here, a burnt tongue indicated guilt.</p> <h2>What the polygraph measures</h2> <p>Historical lie detection methods were based in superstition or religion. However, in the early 20th century a purportedly scientific, objective, lie detection machine was invented: the polygraph.</p> <p>The <a href="https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/228091.pdf">polygraph measures</a> a person’s respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and skin conductance (sweating) during questioning.</p> <p>Usually a “control question” about a crime is asked, such as “Did you do it?” The person’s response to the control question is then compared to responses to neutral or less provocative questions. Heightened reactions to direct crime questions are taken to indicate guilt on the test.</p> <h2>The overconfidence of law enforcers</h2> <p>Some law enforcement experts claim they don’t even need a polygraph. They can detect lies simply by observing the behaviour of a suspect during questioning.</p> <p>Worldwide research shows that law enforcers are often <a href="https://doi.org/10.5093/apj2022a4">confident they can detect lying</a>. Many assume a suspect’s nonverbal behaviour reveals deceit.</p> <p>A <a href="https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/14636641111134314/full/html">2011 study with Queensland police</a> revealed many officers were confident they could detect lying. Most favoured a focus on nonverbal behaviour even over available evidence.</p> <p>However, <a href="https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-96334-1_3">research shows</a> that law enforcers, despite their confidence, are often not very good at detecting lying.</p> <p>Law enforcement officers are not alone in thinking they can spot a liar. <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0022022105282295">Global studies</a> have found that people around the world believe lying is accompanied by specific nonverbal behaviours such as gaze aversion and nervousness.</p> <h2>What’s really being tested</h2> <p>Many historical and current lie detection methods seem underpinned by the plausible idea that liars will be nervous and display observable physical reactions.</p> <p>These might be shaking (such as in the ancient Indian test for poisoners, and the nonverbal behaviour method used by some investigators), a dry mouth (the rice-chewing test and the hot-iron method), increased pulse rate (the ancient Greek method and the modern polygraph), or overall heightened physiological reactions (the polygraph).</p> <p>However, there are two major problems with using behaviour based on fear or stress to detect lying.</p> <p>The first problem: how does one distinguish fearful innocents from fearful guilty people? It is likely that an innocent person accused of a crime will be fearful or anxious, while a guilty suspect may not be.</p> <p>This is borne out with the polygraph’s <a href="https://nap.nationalacademies.org/read/10420/chapter/10#218">high false-positive rate</a>, meaning innocent people are deemed guilty. Similarly, some police have assumed that <a href="https://cqu-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_cdi_informaworld_taylorfrancisbooks_9781843926337">innocent, nervous suspects were guilty</a> based on inaccurate interpretations of behavioural observations.</p> <p>The second major problem with lie detection methods based on nervous behaviour is there is <a href="https://journals.copmadrid.org/apj/art/apj2019a9">no evidence</a> that specific nonverbal behaviours reliably accompany deception.</p> <h2>Miscarriages of justice</h2> <p>Despite what we know about the inaccuracy of polygraph tests, they haven’t gone away.</p> <p>In the US, they are still used in some police interrogations and <a href="https://www.wired.com/story/inside-polygraph-job-screening-black-mirror/">high-security job interviews</a>. In the UK, lie detector tests are used for <a href="https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/domestic-abuse-bill-2020-factsheets/mandatory-polygraph-tests-factsheet">some sex offenders on probation</a>. And in China, the use of polygraphs in law enforcement may <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031938414005964?via%3Dihub">even be increasing</a>.</p> <p>Australia has been less enthusiastic in adopting lie-detection machines. In New South Wales, the use of lie-detector findings was barred from court in 1983, and an attempt to present polygraph evidence to a court in Western Australia in 2003 <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1375/pplt.2004.11.2.359">also failed</a>.</p> <p>Many historical and current lie detection methods emulate each other and are based on the same assumptions. Often the <a href="https://muse.jhu.edu/book/13865">only difference</a> is the which part of the body or physical reaction they focus on.</p> <p>Using fallible lie detection methods <a href="https://journals.copmadrid.org/apj/art/apj2022a4">contributes to wrongful convictions</a> and miscarriages of justice.</p> <p>Therefore, it is important that criminal-justice practitioners are educated about fallacious lie detection methods, and any new technique grounded in fear or stress-based reactions should be rejected.</p> <p>Despite outward appearances of technological advancement, over many millennia little has changed. Fearful innocents remain vulnerable to wrongful assumptions of guilt, which is good news for the fearless guilty.</p> <p><em>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://theconversation.com/lie-detection-tests-have-worked-the-same-way-for-3-000-years-and-theyre-still-hopelessly-inaccurate-200741" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Conversation</a>.</em></p> <p><em>Images: Getty</em></p>

Technology

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Sex and the City star’s family heartbreak

<p>Sex and the City star Kim Cattrall has taken to social media to announce that she has lost her mother.</p> <p>She revealed to fans with a touching series of throwback images on Instagram that Shane Cattrall has died at an amazing 93 years of age.</p> <p>Cattrall, 66, shared the heartfelt post along with the caption: "Shane Cattrall 1929 - 2022. Rest in peace Mum."</p> <p>The photos included selfies of Shane and Kim together, and a sweet photo of the pair together on Kim's graduation day.</p> <p>There were also some older black-and-white photos of Shane, and a sweet one of a school-aged Kim with her mum.</p> <p>Plenty of friends and fans have shared their condolences, including British talk show host Alan Carr.</p> <p>Kim, who appears on the TV show Queer As Folk, also saw her show co-stars send their love.</p> <p>So far Kim's Sex and the City castmates Kristin Davis, Cynthia Nixon and Sarah Jessica Parker are yet to comment.</p> <p>It's unlikely Parker will comment given she and Kim's falling out over the years, and how Cattrall reacted the last time Parker tried to reach out to her after a family tragedy.</p> <p>In 2018, after Kim's brother Chris was found dead after going missing, Parker reached out privately to her, but Kim wasn't so thrilled about the support.</p> <p>The actress took to social media to share a damning response to Parker: "I don't need your love or support at this tragic time @sarahjessicaparker," she wrote.</p> <p>It was followed by an even more fiery caption, which even referenced her late mum:</p> <p>"My Mom asked me today 'When will that @sarahjessicaparker, that hypocrite, leave you alone?'," Kim wrote in the caption. "Your continuous reaching out is a painful reminder of how cruel you really were then and now.</p> <p>"Let me make this VERY clear. (If I haven't already) You are not my family. You are not my friend. So I'm writing to tell you one last time to stop exploiting our tragedy in order to restore your 'nice girl' persona."</p> <p>Parker never responded to the post, later telling Harper's Bazaar, "So there was no fight; it was completely fabricated because I actually never responded. And I won't, because she needed to say what she needed to say, and that is her privilege."</p> <p><em>Image: Instagram</em></p>

Caring

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Aussie travellers warned over strict new sex law

<p dir="ltr">Indonesia has introduced a new law that could see many Aussies and other tourists thrown into jail.</p> <p dir="ltr">The predominately Muslim country announced that the government has approved legislation that would outlaw premarital sex.</p> <p dir="ltr">The news has been met with outrage with many saying it is setting the country back and taking away from people’s freedoms.</p> <p dir="ltr">This new law will also affect Bali, an extremely popular holiday destination and far more liberal than the rest of the country.</p> <p dir="ltr">Bambang Wuryanto, the head of the parliamentary commission in charge of revising the code, told politicians that the old rule is no longer relevant.</p> <p dir="ltr">"The old code belongs to Dutch heritage … and is no longer relevant now."</p> <p dir="ltr">Yasonna Laoly, the Minister of Law and Human Rights said it was time to leave the “colonial criminal code” behind.</p> <p dir="ltr">“We have tried our best to accommodate the important issues and different opinions which were debated,” he said.</p> <p dir="ltr">“However, it is time for us to make a historical decision on the penal code amendment and to leave the colonial criminal code we inherited behind.”</p> <p dir="ltr">The new law is not just applied for tourists, but also citizens with acts of premarital and extramarital sex could only be reported by a spouse, parents or children.</p> <p dir="ltr">Anyone found guilty of premarital and extramarital sex will face a year in jail.</p> <p dir="ltr">Despite the law passing, it is clear that it won’t be applied immediately as it will take time to transition from the old code to the new one.</p> <p dir="ltr">The new code is expected to be implemented within the next three years.</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image: Getty</em></p>

Travel Trouble

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When it comes to music, not all cultures share the same emotional associations

<div class="copy"> <p>Most of us have deep emotional reactions to <a href="https://cosmosmagazine.com/science/physics/recent-musical-research-of-note/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener" data-type="URL" data-id="https://cosmosmagazine.com/science/physics/recent-musical-research-of-note/">music</a>, which is <a href="https://cosmosmagazine.com/people/culture/music-really-is-a-universal-language/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener" data-type="URL" data-id="https://cosmosmagazine.com/people/culture/music-really-is-a-universal-language/">a central part of human cultures</a> around the world. But our ideas about what makes music sound happy or sad are not universal, suggests <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0269597" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener">new research</a> published today in <em>PLoS One</em>.</p> <p>The Australian-led study mainly focused on differences in people’s emotional perceptions of music in major and minor keys. In Western cultures, music in a major key is almost universally perceived as happy, and music in a minor key as sad. Transposing a melody from major to minor seems to instantly introduce a mournful or ominous feel, as demonstrated by this rendition of the “Happy birthday” song.</p> <figure class="wp-block-embed is-type-video is-provider-youtube wp-block-embed-youtube wp-embed-aspect-16-9 wp-has-aspect-ratio"> <div class="wp-block-embed__wrapper"> <div class="entry-content-asset"> <div class="embed-wrapper"> <div class="inner"><iframe title="Happy Birthday in C Minor" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/ipyVmkcUXPM?feature=oembed" width="500" height="281" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen"></iframe></div> </div> </div> </div> </figure> <p>However, the study found that these emotional associations were not shared by some remote communities in Papua New Guinea (PNG) who had little exposure to Western music.</p> <p>“The most important finding of the study is that the degree of familiarity with major and minor music plays a large role in people attributing happiness to major and sadness to minor,” says Eline Smit, who led the study as part of her PhD at Western Sydney University.</p> <p>For the new study, Smit and her colleagues investigated emotional associations of major and minor keys in people living in Sydney and in several villages in Uruwa River Valley in PNG. The valley is only accessible via small plane or multi-day hike, and the villages have similar musical traditions but varying levels of exposure to Western-style music.</p> <p>The researchers played various recordings pairing one major and one minor melody or cadence (a series of chords) to the participants, who were asked to indicate which tune made them feel happy. </p> <div style="position: relative; display: block; max-width: 100%;"> <div style="padding-top: 56.25%;"><iframe style="position: absolute; top: 0px; right: 0px; bottom: 0px; left: 0px; width: 100%; height: 100%;" src="https://players.brightcove.net/5483960636001/HJH3i8Guf_default/index.html?videoId=6308675222112" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen"></iframe></div> </div> <p class="caption">An example of a recording played to research participants in the study. The musical samples are preceded by the word “ingguk” (one) or “yoi” (two). In this example, the first music sample is in a major key and the second in a minor key. <a href="https://osf.io/c3e9y/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener" data-type="URL" data-id="https://osf.io/c3e9y/">Media courtesy Eline Smit</a>.</p> <p>“Western listeners and the PNG groups exposed to Western music were more likely to say the major cadence or melody was the happy one,” Smit explains. That is, these groups were likely to say that the first melody in the example above sounded happy.</p> <p>“However, the PNG group with minimal exposure to Western music showed no preference for choosing major as the happy cadence or melody,” Smit continues. “They were just as likely to choose the minor version.”</p> <div style="position: relative; display: block; max-width: 100%;"> <div style="padding-top: 56.25%;"><iframe style="position: absolute; top: 0px; right: 0px; bottom: 0px; left: 0px; width: 100%; height: 100%;" src="https://players.brightcove.net/5483960636001/HJH3i8Guf_default/index.html?videoId=6308677000112" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen"></iframe></div> </div> <p class="caption">Another example of a recording from the study. In this example, the first music sample is in a minor key and the second in a major key. <a href="https://osf.io/c3e9y/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener" data-type="URL" data-id="https://osf.io/c3e9y/">Media courtesy Eline Smit</a>.</p> <p>Smit, who is also a trained classical pianist, became interested in <a href="https://cosmosmagazine.com/people/social-sciences/musical-instruments-can-mimic-speech/" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener" data-type="URL" data-id="https://cosmosmagazine.com/people/social-sciences/musical-instruments-can-mimic-speech/">the relationship between music and emotions</a> during her PhD. Her research focuses on people’s emotional responses to unfamiliar musical systems.</p> <p>“This study has shown some more insight into the role of the degree of familiarity on having particular emotional responses to music, but this does not mean that there are not any universal responses,” she says. “For the future, it would be interesting to further disentangle the impact of prior exposure and familiarity on responses to music.”</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images </em></p> <p><em><!-- Start of tracking content syndication. Please do not remove this section as it allows us to keep track of republished articles --> <img id="cosmos-post-tracker" style="opacity: 0; height: 1px!important; width: 1px!important; border: 0!important; position: absolute!important; z-index: -1!important;" src="https://syndication.cosmosmagazine.com/?id=196349&amp;title=When+it+comes+to+music%2C+not+all+cultures+share+the+same+emotional+associations" width="1" height="1" data-spai-target="src" data-spai-orig="" data-spai-exclude="nocdn" /> <!-- End of tracking content syndication --></em></div> <div id="contributors"> <p><em>This article was originally published on <a href="https://cosmosmagazine.com/people/emotional-reactions-to-music-cultural/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">cosmosmagazine.com</a> and was written by Matilda Handsley-Davis.</em> </p> </div>

Music

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Is your partner a man-child? No wonder you don’t feel like sex

<p>A man sits on the couch, watching TV. His partner, a woman, prepares dinner, while mentally ticking off her to-do list. That includes returning her partner’s shirts she’d ordered online for him last week, and booking a GP appointment for their youngest child.</p> <p>He walks in and asks her “what’s for dinner?”, then goes back to the TV.</p> <p>Later that night, he’s surprised she’s not interested in sex.</p> <p>The people in this scenario are a woman and a man. But it could be a woman and her child. The dynamics are very similar – one person providing instrumental and emotional care, and the other receiving that care while showing little acknowledgement, gratitude or reciprocation.</p> <p>You’re reading about a man who depends on his partner for everyday tasks that he is actually capable of. Some people call this the “<a href="https://www.instyle.com/lifestyle/hump-day/what-is-a-man-child" target="_blank" rel="noopener">man-child</a>” phenomenon.</p> <p>Maybe you’ve lived it. Our <a href="https://t.co/zDWcUZYsVn" target="_blank" rel="noopener">research</a> shows it’s real.</p> <h2>The man-child is real</h2> <p>The <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10508-021-02100-x" target="_blank" rel="noopener">man-child phenomenon</a> (or perceiving a partner as dependent, as we call it) describes the blurring of roles between a partner and a child.</p> <p>You may hear women describe their male partners as their “dependent” or one of their children.</p> <p>When a partner starts to feel like they have a dependent child, it’s not surprising if that affects a woman’s sexual desire for him.</p> <p>We set out to explore whether this might explain why many women partnered with men <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11930-014-0027-5" target="_blank" rel="noopener">report</a> low sexual desire.</p> <p>Surprisingly, until our study, there were no studies that had tried to directly measure the impact of the man-child phenomenon on women’s sexual desire.</p> <h2>What we did</h2> <p>We conducted <a href="https://t.co/zDWcUZYsVn" target="_blank" rel="noopener">two studies</a> with more than 1,000 women from around the world, in relationships with men. All our participants had children under the age of 12.</p> <p>We asked the women to rate their agreement with statements like, “Sometimes I feel as though my partner is like an extra child I need to look after.” We also asked them about the division of household labour in their relationship, and their level of sexual desire for their partner.</p> <p>We found consistent evidence that:</p> <ul> <li> <p>when women performed more household labour than their partner, they were more likely to perceive their partner as dependents (that is, the man-child phenomenon)</p> </li> <li> <p>perceiving a partner as a dependent was associated with lower sexual desire for that partner.</p> </li> </ul> <p>When taken together, you could say women’s partners were taking on an unsexy role – that of a child.</p> <p>There could be other explanations. For instance, women who perceive their partners as dependents may be more likely to do more around the house. Alternatively, low desire for a partner may lead to the partner being perceived as a dependent. So we need more research to confirm.</p> <p>Our research highlights a pretty bleak snapshot of what people’s relationships can involve. And while the man-child phenomenon may not exist for you, it reflects broader gendered inequities in relationships.</p> <h2>Is there a man-child equivalent in same-sex relationships?</h2> <p>Our research was solely about relationships between women and men, with children. But it would be interesting to explore if the man-child phenomenon exists in same-sex or gender-diverse relationships, and what the impact might be on sexual desire.</p> <p>One possibility is that, in relationships between two women, men, or non-binary people, household labour is more <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10894160.2016.1142350?casa_token=Qz37Pcn3THYAAAAA%3AD81uS-d6AQ5ZaV41IXTIXIsE2RmsUqIOIkoQqBC8ThSMyfYhs8GAjy4uLEP6bkxTXARWpSfeI-wRMAE" target="_blank" rel="noopener">equitably negotiated</a>. As a result, the mother-child dynamic may be less likely to emerge. But no-one has studied that yet.</p> <p>Another possibility is that one person in the relationship (regardless of gender identity) takes on a more feminine role. This may include more of the mothering, nurturing labour than their partner(s). If that was the case, we might see the man-child phenomenon in a broader range of relationships. Again, no-one has studied this.</p> <p>Perhaps, anyone could be the “man-child” in their relationship.</p> <h2>What else don’t we know?</h2> <p>Such future research may help explore different types of relationship dynamics more broadly.</p> <p>This may help us understand what sexual desire might look like in relationships where roles are equitably negotiated, chosen, and renegotiated as needed.</p> <p>We might learn what happens when household labour is valued like paid labour. Or what happens when both partners support each other and can count on each other for daily and life needs.</p> <p>Women might be less likely to experience their partners as dependents and feel more sexual desire for them. In other words, the closer we are to equity in actively caring for each other, the closer we might be to equity in the capacity for feeling sexual desire with our partner.</p> <p><strong>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://theconversation.com/is-your-partner-a-man-child-no-wonder-you-dont-feel-like-sex-194913" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Conversation</a>.</strong></p> <p><em>Image: Shutterstock</em></p>

Relationships

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Maddie McCann suspect charged with sex offences

<p dir="ltr">Christian Brueckner, the only suspect in the Madeleine McCann case, has been charged with several sex offences. </p> <p dir="ltr">The 45-year-old, who is already in jail for raping a 72-year-old American woman in the Portuguese resort of Praia de Luz in 2005, is the only suspect in the Maddie McCann case.</p> <p dir="ltr">The Braunschweig prosecutor's office said Brueckner has been charged with several sex offences he committed in Portugal between December 28, 2000, and June 11, 2017.</p> <p dir="ltr">“The accused is the same person against whom charges were brought in connection with the disappearance of the then three-year-old British girl Madeleine Beth McCann,” they said in a statement. </p> <p dir="ltr">"Specifically, the accused is charged with three offences of aggravated rape and two offences of sexual abuse of children.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Police are however continuing their investigation into the disappearance of the then three-year-old who vanished in May 2007 from her bedroom in the Algarve apartment where her family were staying.</p> <p dir="ltr">"The investigation into the disappearance of Madeleine McCann continues."</p> <p dir="ltr">"In view of the ongoing investigation, it is not possible to provide any further information on the results of the investigation so far."</p> <p dir="ltr">Brueckner, who was first named as a suspect in the case in April 2022, has denied any involvement in the disappearance of Maddie.</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Images: Getty</em></p>

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Peppa Pig has introduced a pair of lesbian polar bears, but Aussie kids’ TV has been leading the way in queer representation

<p>Peppa Pig’s first same-sex couple, a pair of lesbian polar bears, were recently introduced after <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2022/sep/08/peppa-pig-introduces-its-first-same-sex-couple" target="_blank" rel="noopener">a petition to include a same-sex family</a> received nearly 24,000 signatures.</p> <p>Children’s television has often been a place to push the boundaries of diverse representations onscreen. In particular, Australian children’s TV has been a global leader in screen diversity, including gender and queer representation.</p> <p>Emmy-winning Australian series <a href="https://www.imdb.com/title/tt10614090/?ref_=nv_sr_srsg_6" target="_blank" rel="noopener">First Day</a> (2020-22) tells the story of a transgender girl starting high school.</p> <p>Another Emmy-winner, <a href="https://www.imdb.com/title/tt8747140/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Hardball</a> (2019-21) includes gay dads for one of the lead characters.</p> <p>Even recent updates to The Wiggles’ line-up has placed a greater emphasis on gender diversity, including <a href="https://www.news.com.au/entertainment/music/the-wiggles-announces-four-new-band-members-with-focus-on-diversity-gender-equality/news-story/dbc914965a83332c857e7665b3639ba0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">adding a non-binary unicorn</a>.</p> <h2>Diverse representation</h2> <p>Children’s TV is often less risk averse than programming aimed at adults.</p> <p>The ABC is <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1329878X16687400" target="_blank" rel="noopener">empowered</a> to take risks with representations of gender and sexuality in children’s programming because of its publicly funded role.</p> <p>But such progressive portrayals can sometimes chafe with outdated expectations of children’s television. In 2004, Play School <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07380560802314128" target="_blank" rel="noopener">faced controversy</a> for showing lesbian mothers.</p> <p>As social acceptance has progressed, Australian children’s TV has been able to achieve more queer representations.</p> <p>Talking to the Queering Australian Screens <a href="https://djomeara.com/phd-research/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">research project</a>, television professionals often praised the genre for its openness to new ideas, representations and bringing in new talent.</p> <p>Tony Ayres, Creator of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nowhere_Boys" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Nowhere Boys</a> (2013-18), observed those who commission children’s TV are “generally very open to diverse representation”.</p> <p>This representation happens behind the scenes, too, with Ayres describing how these shows often give new talent their first credit.</p> <p>David Hannam, who has written for several kids’ TV shows including <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dance_Academy" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dance Academy</a> (2010-13), said children’s television “has led the way”.</p> <p>Speaking of his time at the Australian Children’s Television Foundation, Hannam noted the foundation had an “almost charter responsibility” to show diversity on screen, “with great caution and responsibility”.</p> <p>Julie Kalceff created First Day, which starred a young trans actor, Evie McDonald, as a trans girl starting high school.</p> <p>When she was developing the show, Kalceff shared that she was initially concerned about what would be allowed on children’s TV:</p> <p>There were no trans people on television. There were no TV shows with trans actors in the lead role. I thought there’s no way the ABC is going to do this. And there’s no way they’re going to do it with kids’ TV. But to their credit, the ABC was so supportive, and was so behind the project from the beginning.</p> <h2>What audiences want</h2> <p>It is not only TV producers who are eager to widen representation in children’s television. Audiences are also seeking out more inclusive content.</p> <p>Just like Peppa Pig in the UK, there have been calls in Australia for more diversity in animated hit Bluey, with the show adding its <a href="https://10play.com.au/theproject/articles/bluey-introduces-first-auslan-signing-character-in-a-new-special-episode/tpa220616bswgm" target="_blank" rel="noopener">first Auslan signing character</a> in June.</p> <p>One of our research projects, Australian Children’s Television Cultures’ <a href="https://www.swinburne.edu.au/news/2022/05/new-research-shows-the-way-families-watch-TV-is-changing/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2021 survey</a> found 90% of Australian parents believe diverse representation is an important element of children’s TV.</p> <p>As one father explained:</p> <blockquote> <p>Diversity on screen helps children learn about people with different upbringings from their own, expanding their empathy for and curiosity about other people.</p> </blockquote> <p>In contrast to the controversy Play School received nearly 20 years ago for its inclusion of same-sex parents, a mother praised the show for “doing a fantastic job” of depicting diversity in relationships.</p> <p>Not everyone believes Australian television is doing enough. One survey respondent praised the way shows like Bluey reflect Australian culture, but said he would “love to see more LGBT representation […] It would be nice as a kid to know you’re valid.”</p> <h2>Uncertain futures</h2> <p>The streaming era has changed how families and children watch TV. This raises concerns about the future of Australian children’s content.</p> <p>The recent <a href="https://theconversation.com/cheese-n-crackers-concerns-deepen-for-the-future-of-australian-childrens-television-147183" target="_blank" rel="noopener">removal of quotas</a> for Australian networks to air a minimum number of hours of children’s television, alongside the absence of quotas on streaming services, has led to <a href="https://tvtonight.com.au/2022/09/producers-slam-hypocritical-networks-as-australian-childrens-tv-plummets.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">a reduction</a> in the production of local kids’ TV.</p> <p>From Play School to Bluey, children’s TV has reflected the richness of Australian cultural life. There is a risk that if Australian child audiences need to rely on international content, future generations will not see themselves on screen.</p> <p>With the loss of local voices, Australian kids’ TV may also lose its ability to push boundaries of diversity and inclusion.</p> <p><strong>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://theconversation.com/peppa-pig-has-introduced-a-pair-of-lesbian-polar-bears-but-aussie-kids-tv-has-been-leading-the-way-in-queer-representation-190648" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Conversation</a>.</strong></p> <p><em>Image: Peppa Pig</em></p>

TV

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"Absolutely ridiculous": Aussie grandma charged after exposing sex offender

<p dir="ltr"><em><strong>Content warning: This article includes mentions of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA).</strong></em></p> <p dir="ltr">A grandmother-of-seven has been charged and hit with a hefty fine after going to great lengths to expose a convicted paedophile who moved to her community.</p> <p dir="ltr">Maxine Davey held up signs reading, ‘Keep children safe from peodophiles (sic)’, along a busy stretch of road to warn residents of the Central Queensland neighbourhood of Calliope that the man had moved there after being released from prison.</p> <p dir="ltr">However, the 59-year-old landed in hot water when she filmed the outside of the man’s home and shared the footage - which included vision of his property and vehicles that could be identified - on Facebook, prompting angry locals to comment and make threats.</p> <p dir="ltr">Ms Davey was found guilty of one count of unlawful stalking, which comes with a potential five-year jail term.</p> <p dir="ltr">“I just wanted to hold up a sign, publicise the fact that other parents (need) to be aware, but then I stepped over the line and broke the law,” she told <em><a href="https://9now.nine.com.au/a-current-affair/queensland-grandmother-convicted-after-outing-predator-on-facebook/2cba9761-85d3-4a4e-8c3d-ee5632a72ef1" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A Current Affair</a></em>.</p> <p dir="ltr">“I crossed the line by posting [the video]. I posted it and it was online for two hours and 35 minutes before I quickly removed it.</p> <p dir="ltr">“I was shocked, I was sorry. I didn’t know at the time I’d broken the law, but obviously [the police] told me.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Ms Davey was able to avoid prison time after the magistrate ruled that she pay a $2200 fine instead. Her phone was also confiscated and a conviction was recorded.</p> <p dir="ltr">“I’m really devastated by it all,” Ms Davey said of the conviction. “I’ve never considered myself a criminal and I’ll have this charge against me for the rest of my life.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Since the legal action, sexual assault survivors who were victims of the man Ms Davey exposed have rallied behind her, saying she should be treated as a “hero”, not a criminal.</p> <p dir="ltr">“It is absolutely ridiculous how the justice system works. She shouldn't be put through this. This is not fair,” one victim said.</p> <p dir="ltr">“I believe she is honestly like a hero. It absolutely breaks my heart that she's trying to do the right thing (as) a human and she's absolutely being torn apart for it,” another victim said.</p> <p dir="ltr">The 41-year-old was convicted of rape and multiple counts of indecent treatment of children under the age of 16 and sentenced to two years and nine months of jail time last year.</p> <p dir="ltr">According to the Queensland Government’s website, confidential details about a sex offender can be released by the chief executive of Corrective Services when individual community members need to know information about the offender, such as their employment.</p> <p dir="ltr">Unlike in the US, where Megan’s Law requires police to release information about registered sex offenders to the public, individuals who request confidential information in Australia must sign a confidentiality agreement first.</p> <p><span id="docs-internal-guid-1e633a3c-7fff-dcad-2093-78ad07e6813b"></span></p> <p dir="ltr"><strong><em>If you or someone you know is in need of support as a result of sexual assault or child sexual abuse, contact the Blue Knot Helpline and Redress Support Service on 1300 657 380, or LifeLine on 13 11 14 for immediate support.</em></strong></p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image: Nine</em></p>

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