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Attempted assassination of Trump: The long history of violence against U.S. presidents

<div class="theconversation-article-body"><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/thomas-klassen-1171638">Thomas Klassen</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/york-university-canada-1610">York University, Canada</a></em></p> <p>Political assassinations in the United States have a long and disturbing history.</p> <p>The <a href="https://apnews.com/article/trump-vp-vance-rubio-7c7ba6b99b5f38d2d840ed95b2fdc3e5">attempted assassination of Donald Trump</a>, who narrowly escaped death when a bullet grazed his right ear while he was speaking at a campaign rally in Pennsylvania on Saturday, highlights the danger of those seeking votes in a country whose constitution guarantees citizens the right to bear arms.</p> <p>Trump joins a not-so-exclusive club of U.S. presidents, former presidents and presidential candidates who have been the target of bullets. Of the 45 people who have served as president, four have been <a href="https://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/us-presidents-assassinated-targeted-presidential-candidates-111920908">assassinated while in office</a>.</p> <p>Given the near mythic status of U.S. presidents, and the nation’s superpower role, political assassinations strike at the very heart of the American psyche.</p> <p><a href="https://www.loc.gov/collections/abraham-lincoln-papers/articles-and-essays/assassination-of-president-abraham-lincoln/">Abraham Lincoln</a>’s killing in 1865 and that of <a href="https://theconversation.com/jfk-assassination-60-years-on-seven-experts-on-what-to-watch-see-and-read-to-understand-the-event-and-its-consequences-216203">John F. Kennedy</a> in 1963 are key moments in the history of the United States. <a href="https://www.history.com/news/the-assassination-of-president-james-a-garfield">James Garfield</a> (1881) and <a href="https://www.history.com/news/the-assassination-of-president-william-mckinley">William McKinley</a> (1901) are less remembered, but their deaths nonetheless rocked the nation at the time.</p> <h2>Secret Service provides protection</h2> <p>It was after McKinley’s assassination that the U.S. Secret Service was given <a href="https://www.secretservice.gov/about/history/150-years#:%7E:text">the job of providing full-time protection to presidents</a>.</p> <p>The last American president to be shot was Ronald Reagan, <a href="https://www.reaganlibrary.gov/permanent-exhibits/assassination-attempt">who was seriously wounded and required emergency surgery in 1981</a>.</p> <p>Reagan was leaving a Washington hotel after giving a speech when gunman John Hinckley Jr. fired shots from a .22-calibre pistol. One of the bullets ricocheted off the president’s limousine and hit him under the left armpit. Reagan spent 12 days in hospital before returning to the White House.</p> <p>Other presidents have been shot at, but luckily, not injured.</p> <p>In 1933, <a href="http://www.fdrlibraryvirtualtour.org/page03-06.asp">a gunman fired five shots at the car of then President-Elect Franklin D. Roosevelt</a>. Roosevelt wasn’t hit but the mayor of Chicago, Anton Cermak, who was speaking to Roosevelt after the newly elected president had made some brief remarks to the public, was injured and <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297642/">died 19 days later</a>.</p> <h2>Two attempts in one month</h2> <p>In September of 1975, President Gerald Ford survived <a href="https://www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov/avproj/assassinations.asp">two separate assassination attempts — both by women</a>. The first came on Sept. 5 when Lynette (Squeaky) Fromme, a follower of cult leader Charles Manson, tried to shoot Ford as he was walking through a park in Sacramento, Calif., but her gun misfired and didn’t go off. On Sept. 22, Sara Jane Moore, a woman with ties to left-wing radical groups, got one shot off at Ford as he left a hotel in San Francisco but it missed the president.</p> <p>Presidential candidates have not been exempt from assassination attempts, including most notably Senator <a href="https://www.npr.org/2023/06/05/1179430014/robert-kennedy-rfk-assassination-anniversary">Robert F. Kennedy</a> killed in 1968 and <a href="https://www.wsfa.com/2024/07/14/son-late-alabama-gov-george-wallace-reacts-trump-rally-shooting/">George Wallace</a> shot and left paralyzed in 1972.</p> <p>In 1912, former president Theodore Roosevelt <a href="https://blogs.loc.gov/headlinesandheroes/2019/07/the-pocket-items-that-saved-the-life-of-theodore-roosevelt/">was hit in the chest by a .38-calibre bullet</a> as he was campaigning to regain the White House. But most of the impact of the bullet was absorbed by objects in the chest pocket of Roosevelt’s jacket. Even though he had been shot, Roosevelt went on to make a campaign speech with the bullet still in his chest.</p> <h2>The violence of 1968</h2> <p>Other figures with significant — if unelected — political power have also had their lives cut short by gunfire, most notably <a href="https://theconversation.com/mlks-vision-matters-today-for-the-43-million-americans-living-in-poverty-92380">Martin Luther King Jr.</a> in 1968, just a few months before Bobby Kennedy’s death.</p> <p>In a country with <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2018/06/19/there-are-more-guns-than-people-in-the-united-states-according-to-a-new-study-of-global-firearm-ownership/">more guns than people</a>, and with firearms easily available, it is not surprising that invariably shootings are the preferred means of killing or attempting to kill political office holders.</p> <p>Like Trump, most assassination attempts occur when candidates and politicians are in public spaces with crowds of people nearby. There is a long history of politicians insisting, against the advice of their security advisers, to “press the flesh” in events that jeopardize their safety. Trump was extraordinarily fortunate to escape with only minor injuries.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/234630/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/thomas-klassen-1171638">Thomas Klassen</a>, Professor, School of Public Policy and Administration, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/york-university-canada-1610">York University, Canada</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Xinhua News Agency/Shutterstock Editorial </em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/attempted-assassination-of-trump-the-long-history-of-violence-against-u-s-presidents-234630">original article</a>.</em></p> </div>

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Alice Springs plunged into curfew after wave of violence

<p>The city of Alice Springs has been plunged into a three-night curfew after a wave of violence that saw four police officers allegedly attacked. </p> <p>Northern Territory Police Commissioner Michael Murphy declared the curfew on Monday, which will prevent people of all ages going into the city centre between 10pm and 6am over the next three nights without good reason.</p> <p>"Some of those reasons are if you're fleeing from domestic violence, if you're visiting family, if you have to care for someone, if you're here for employment purposes, if you go into a fast food restaurant or some lawful purpose," Murphy said.</p> <p>He said the curfew area would cover "Anzac Hill, Schwarz Crescent, down to the hospital, from the Stuart Highway across to Leichhardt and Stott Terrace".</p> <p>The curfew is a result of a crime-ridden weekend, where several incidents of violent crime allegedly took place. </p> <p>In the early hours of Sunday morning, a group of four off-duty police officers were allegedly assaulted by a group of 20 young men, while another officer was allegedly run over by a drunk driver outside a bottle shop.</p> <p>"The offending in Alice Springs over the last few days has been unacceptable," NT Chief Minister Eva Lawler said.</p> <p>"The curfew will provide police extra powers to get on top of the situation on the ground in Alice Springs."</p> <p>Commissioner Murphy said he will consider requesting an extension of the curfew if required.</p> <p>"If there is a continuation of harmful conduct, which I hope there is not, we apply some measures now and use the community to help us we should see a turnaround," he said.</p> <p>Lawler said she believed the curfew would be an effective "circuit breaker", but Swinburne University criminology expert Dr Joel McGregor said longer-term measures were required for broader change in the region.</p> <p>"To address any crime problem, interventions that lead to long-term behaviour change are required," he said.</p> <div>"While the Northern Territory curfew may be stopping crimes being perpetuated during the evening, it should not be thought of as a solution to the problems the state is facing."</p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock</em></p> </div>

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Three children dead after allegedly being forced into house fire

<p><em><strong>Warning: This article contains disturbing content that readers may find distressing. </strong></em></p> <p>Three children have tragically died in a house fire in Sydney's west, with police allegedly treating the incident as a domestic violence attack. </p> <p>At 1am on Sunday morning, neighbours raised the alarm after spotting the fire in a family home in the suburb of Lalor Park.</p> <p>Firefighters arrived on the scene in six minutes to battle what neighbours called an "intense" blaze. </p> <p>"The flames were shooting out the front window at 20 feet," Brett said.</p> <p>Two adults and seven young children were inside when the fire broke out, with neighbours saying they were awoken by screaming. </p> <p>Two boys aged three and six years old were given CPR on the street but could not be revived, and a 10-month-old baby girl was also found dead inside the home.</p> <p>As rescue crews, emergency services and locals battled to extinguish the powerful flames and rescue those inside, father Dean Heasman was allegedly seen pushing the children back in.</p> <p>"We're alleging that 28-year-old man took direct actions to prevent the rescue of those young lives that were lost," NSW Police Homicide Squad Superintendent Danny Doherty said.</p> <p>"We will allege that this 28-year-old man's actions were directly the cause of the death of these three young people."</p> <p>"We've seen three young lives have just been taken away in the most tragic of circumstances, quite unimaginable how the family is coping with this."</p> <p>A 29-year-old woman, a nine-year-old girl, and three boys aged four, seven and 11 were also in the house during the blaze, but escaped and were rushed to Westmead hospital. </p> <p>Neighbours said the surviving children told them the man ordered them to stay inside the home as it burned, one of them claiming he tried to fight in a bid to save his siblings.</p> <p>"Dad tried to kill us," the child allegedly told rescuers.</p> <p>Residents claimed they saw the man attempting to drag the terrified children back inside, as they said he was shouting "leave me here to die".</p> <p>It's understood the man, who was arrested at the scene and remains in a coma with significant injuries, was not previously known to police and had no existing apprehended violence order against him.</p> <p>NSW Premier Chris Minns labelled the incident "horrifying and senseless" and offered the family support, as an investigation into the cause of the blaze begins. </p> <p><em>Image credits: Nine News</em></p> <p> </p>

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Woman dies after police fail to respond to 000 call in time

<p>A delayed police response is under investigation after a woman in her 40s died when police officers took almost an hour to respond to a 000 call. </p> <p>Sarah Miles, a mother-of-three from Byron Bay, died after she was allegedly beaten by her boyfriend in her home on Saturday morning.</p> <p>A triple-0 call was made at 1:30am after neighbours reportedly heard screams coming from the house, but NSW Police didn’t acknowledge the call until 2:25am.</p> <p>By the time they arrived on the scene, they found Miles fighting for life in her final moments.</p> <p>She was unconscious but breathing, with “obvious injuries” to her head caused by a physical assault, NSW Police Assistant Commissioner Peter McKenna said.</p> <p>“Police assisted her and called for an ambulance immediately (which) arrived very shortly after, but unfortunately, her condition deteriorated, and she died at the scene,” McKenna said.</p> <p>“The delay in the timing of police acknowledging that call and attending the scene has given me enough concern that I’ve asked for an independent review of this investigation as to what that delay was and if it was justified."</p> <p>“We want to see what happened from the time that call was made, how the radio operator dispatched that call, the circumstances around the timings until it was acknowledged and until police attended.”</p> <p>The NSW Police Homicide Squad is working separately with local officers to investigate Miles’ death.</p> <p>McKenna said the force takes domestic violence very seriously and the issue is at the “top of our priority list”.</p> <p>“It is one of the most serious crimes there is, and we will do everything we can to take this as seriously as we can and make sure people are held to account and put before the courts,” he said.</p> <p>Miles's partner, Dwayne John Creighton, 31, was arrested at the scene and taken to Lismore Police Station, where he was charged with one count of murder.</p> <p><em>Image credits: 7News</em></p>

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Cops charged after allegedly assaulting 92-year-old

<p>Two police officers have been charged after allegedly assaulting a 92-year-old man in Sydney’s southwest.</p> <p>The officers attended a home at Campbell Street, Picton, after 8:45pm on January 21, following reports of a domestic incident. </p> <p>"The 92-year-old man received injuries which were allegedly the result of an interaction with the officers," a NSW Police statement reads.</p> <p>"He was taken to hospital where he was admitted with a fracture to his right elbow, and significant bruising to his head and arms."</p> <p>Following an internal investigation - which began the day after police attended the home - a male senior constable and a male constable, both from the South West Metropolitan Region, were given court attendance notices yesterday for assault occasioning actual bodily harm.</p> <p>The constable is also facing a further charge of assault. </p> <p>NSW Police Commissioner Karen Webb said that police responded to over 140,000 domestic violence matters every year and they review all the responses the following day. </p> <p>She also said that it was "too hard to say" whether a domestic violence matter took place at the home, and it appeared that a resident at the home had dementia. </p> <p>"It's obviously a complex matter when you have someone elderly, someone who has mental decline through dementia, or through something else, that can actually articulate any concerns to police properly."</p> <p>However, no-one has been charged with domestic violence. </p> <p>One of the officers will appear at Campbelltown Local Court on July 30, and the other is due to appear at the same court on August 6. </p> <p>Both officers will be suspended with pay. </p> <p><em>Image: Nine</em></p> <p> </p>

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Grandmother in critical condition after stabbing

<p>A grandmother is in hospital in a critical condition after she was stabbed multiple times in an alleged DV incident in Perth's east. </p> <p>Police were called to a home on Jessie Road in Gooseberry Hill just after 5pm on Wednesday after neighbours allegedly heard  60-year-old Paulette Mountford's screams. </p> <p><em>Nine News </em>reported that her neighbours found her in the garden and were attempting to apply pressure to her neck and body before paramedics arrived. </p> <p>She was rushed to hospital where she underwent emergency surgery and remains in a serious but stable condition. </p> <p>Christopher John Sullivan, 72, was taken into custody at the property before being charged with one count of attempt to unlawfully kill.</p> <p>Her alleged attacker reportedly barricaded himself inside the home before tactical response officers negotiated for him to leave.</p> <p>Mountford is a church volunteer who has helped support victims of domestic violence. </p> <p>In a statement, her daughters said: "We are devastated and utterly heartbroken that our dear mother has endured such a horrifying ordeal." </p> <p>"All we want is for our mother to overcome her injuries."</p> <p>They also thanked everyone who rushed to her aid and those who are continuing to care for her. </p> <p>“For such a kind-hearted person to suffer so deeply is hard for us to understand," they said.</p> <p>“All that we want at this time is for our mother to overcome her injuries, and we pray and hope that she gets better soon.</p> <p>“She is a strong woman and we know she will be using all her strength to get better.”</p> <p>Sullivan appeared before the Perth Magistrates Court on Wednesday charged with attempted murder. </p> <p>He told the magistrate he intended to plead guilty but no official plea was entered, and the matter was stood down while he was provided legal advice. </p> <p>He did not apply for bail and was remanded in custody. </p> <p><em>Image: Nine</em></p>

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“He tried to kill me": Shock claims against former TV presenter

<p>Former Channel Seven presenter Liam David Cox has appeared via audiovisual link in Sydney Downing Centre Local Court on Monday, following claims that he forcefully strangled a woman during a domestic dispute. </p> <p>The woman told police that Cox had wrestled her to the ground, straddled her, and proceeded to forcefully strangle her until she lost consciousness.</p> <p>“He tried to kill me,” she told police. </p> <p>The court heard that police found the woman bleeding from her nose and coughing up blood, when they attended the scene. </p> <p>They also found blood splattered on the bedsheets and pillows, and on tissues in the toilet. She was treated by paramedics before being hospitalised for her injuries. </p> <p>The alleged incident occurred at a house in Vaucluse, in Sydney’s eastern suburbs, on the night of May 4, and Cox was arrested at a hotel in Bondi Beach the following day. </p> <p>Cox has spent nearly a month behind bars, and was applying for bail during the court hearing on Monday. </p> <p>The court heard that the altercation occurred after he had attended a charity fundraiser with the woman where he had a few drinks before they became embroiled in a heated argument. </p> <p>Magistrate Greg Grogin said the facts stated that the woman had been “the instigator” and “quite aggressive”, adding that he wasn't "victim blaming" but adding context to the “extremely serious allegations” where Cox allegedly lashed out  after an “ongoing” argument. </p> <p>Cox's lawyer Ben Barrack told the court the couple had clashed three times that night, and the woman had punched and kicked him in the lead up to the alleged assault. </p> <p>The former TV presenter also claimed that he was acting in self-defence, but admitted that he had not used reasonable force. </p> <p>His lawyer added that the woman’s allegations were “highly problematic” and emphasised she had not yet provided a statement to police about the alleged assault.</p> <p>Police prosecutor Nellia Ng argued that Cox should not be granted bail because there was a risk that he would further endangered the alleged victim commit further offences, or fail to appear in court.</p> <p>However, the Magistrate determined that the risks could be mitigated if Cox resided in Queensland and was barred from contacting his alleged victim.</p> <p>He granted bail with strict conditions including having to surrender his passport, report to police, and abstain from contacting the woman.</p> <p>“Domestic violence should not occur anywhere at any time with anybody for any reason,” Magistrate Grogin said.</p> <p>“Any temptation to contact (the woman) will be a short-course way to come back before the court via AVL wearing green. You don’t need to do that.”</p> <p><em>Image: YouTube</em></p>

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Hundreds arrested in domestic violence crackdown

<p>More than 550 people in NSW have been arrested in a state-wide crackdown on domestic and family violence. </p> <p>Operation Amarok VI ran from last Wednesday to Saturday, and in that time police arrested 554 people and made a total of 1070 charges. </p> <p>Of those arrests, 226 were wanted by police for alleged serious domestic violence offences, according to a NSW police spokesman. </p> <p>"Anyone who commits this heinous crime can expect a knock at their door," Police Minister Yasmin Catley said.</p> <p>"Operation Amarok is just one part of the police response. Last year, almost 150,000 calls for assistance were made to the NSWPF for domestic violence-related matters.</p> <p>"This shows the severity of the situation, the huge amount of police time and resources that go into addressing this epidemic and how important it is for prevention, early intervention and crisis support services to work together."</p> <p>Some of most significant arrests include a a 53-year-old man who allegedly threatened a woman with an imitation gun in Kempsey. </p> <p>Officers searched the home and seized the weapon and some cannabis. </p> <p>A 23-year-old woman was also arrested in the state's west after allegedly stabbing a relative around 2:30 am on May 17. </p> <p>The older relative received multiple stab wounds to the abdomen, head, and back and was taken to a local hospital where police were called.</p> <p>She was later flown to the Royal Adelaide Hospital in a critical condition.</p> <p>The 23-year-old was charged with wound person intend cause grievous bodily harm and was refused bail to appear in Dubbo Local Court on May 18.</p> <p>NSW Police Executive Sponsor for Domestic and Family Violence, Deputy Commissioner Peter Thurtell said that the operation allowed police to conduct a targeted blitz of those who have been flagged as the worst domestic violence offenders. </p> <p>“We demonstrated last week that we will target and arrest the offenders no matter where they are located. We saw significant arrest numbers in our regional communities, and we also saw arrests for offences that occurred allegedly while the offender was in jail," he said. </p> <p>"These Amarok VI results send a powerful message to offenders, and the community at large, that we do not tolerate domestic and family violence in any form, and our efforts will continue."</p> <p><em>Images: NSW Police</em></p>

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To tackle gendered violence, we also need to look at drugs, trauma and mental health

<div class="theconversation-article-body"> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/siobhan-odean-1356613">Siobhan O'Dean</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/lucinda-grummitt-1531503">Lucinda Grummitt</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/steph-kershaw-1466426">Steph Kershaw</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a></em></p> <p>After several highly publicised alleged murders of women in Australia, the Albanese government this week pledged <a href="https://ministers.pmc.gov.au/gallagher/2024/helping-women-leave-violent-partner-payment">more than A$925 million</a> over five years to address men’s violence towards women. This includes up to $5,000 to support those escaping violent relationships.</p> <p>However, to reduce and prevent gender-based and intimate partner violence we also need to address the root causes and contributors. These include alcohol and other drugs, trauma and mental health issues.</p> <h2>Why is this crucial?</h2> <p>The World Health Organization estimates <a href="https://iris.who.int/bitstream/handle/10665/341604/WHO-SRH-21.6-eng.pdf?sequence=1">30% of women</a> globally have experienced intimate partner violence, gender-based violence or both. In Australia, <a href="https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/people/crime-and-justice/partner-violence/latest-release#key-statistics">27% of women</a> have experienced intimate partner violence by a co-habiting partner; <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37004184/">almost 40%</a> of Australian children are exposed to domestic violence.</p> <p>By gender-based violence we mean violence or intentionally harmful behaviour directed at someone due to their gender. But intimate partner violence specifically refers to violence and abuse occurring between current (or former) romantic partners. Domestic violence can extend beyond intimate partners, to include other family members.</p> <p>These statistics highlight the urgent need to address not just the aftermath of such violence, but also its roots, including the experiences and behaviours of perpetrators.</p> <h2>What’s the link with mental health, trauma and drugs?</h2> <p>The relationships between mental illness, drug use, traumatic experiences and violence are complex.</p> <p>When we look specifically at the link between mental illness and violence, most people with mental illness will not become violent. But there <a href="https://theconversation.com/bondi-attacker-had-mental-health-issues-but-most-people-with-mental-illness-arent-violent-227868">is evidence</a> people with serious mental illness can be more likely to become violent.</p> <p>The use of alcohol and other drugs also <a href="https://theconversation.com/alcohol-and-drug-use-exacerbate-family-violence-and-can-be-dealt-with-69986">increases the risk</a> of domestic violence, including intimate partner violence.</p> <p>About <a href="https://www.aihw.gov.au/family-domestic-and-sexual-violence/understanding-fdsv/factors-associated-with-fdsv">one in three</a> intimate partner violence incidents involve alcohol. These are more likely to result in physical injury and hospitalisation. The risk of perpetrating violence is even higher for people with mental ill health who are also <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1525086/">using alcohol or other drugs</a>.</p> <p>It’s also important to consider traumatic experiences. Most people who experience trauma do not commit violent acts, but there are <a href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpub/article/PIIS2468-2667(23)00075-0/fulltext">high rates</a> of trauma among people who become violent.</p> <p>For example, experiences of childhood trauma (such as witnessing physical abuse) <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359178915000828?via%3Dihub">can increase the risk</a> of perpetrating domestic violence as an adult.</p> <p>Early traumatic experiences can affect the brain and body’s <a href="https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-017-0895-4">stress response</a>, leading to heightened fear and perception of threat, and difficulty regulating emotions. This can result in aggressive responses when faced with conflict or stress.</p> <p>This response to stress increases the risk of <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9675346/">alcohol and drug problems</a>, developing <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30798897/">PTSD</a> (post-traumatic stress disorder), and <a href="https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2015-17349-001">increases the risk</a> of perpetrating intimate partner violence.</p> <h2>How can we address these overlapping issues?</h2> <p>We can reduce intimate partner violence by addressing these overlapping issues and tackling the root causes and contributors.</p> <p>The early intervention and treatment of <a href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-019-0728-z">mental illness</a>, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204020939645">trauma</a> (including PTSD), and <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2015.06.001">alcohol and other drug use</a>, could help reduce violence. So extra investment for these are needed. We also need more investment to <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212657023000508">prevent mental health issues</a>, and preventing alcohol and drug use disorders from developing in the first place.</p> <p><a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S074937972200023X?via%3Dihub">Preventing trauma</a> from occuring and supporting those exposed is crucial to end what can often become a vicious cycle of intergenerational trauma and violence. <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/070674371105600505">Safe and supportive</a> environments and relationships can protect children against mental health problems or further violence as they grow up and engage in their own intimate relationships.</p> <p>We also need to acknowledge the widespread <a href="https://store.samhsa.gov/product/practical-guide-implementing-trauma-informed-approach/pep23-06-05-005">impact of trauma</a> and its effects on mental health, drug use and violence. This needs to be integrated into policies and practices to reduce re-traumatising individuals.</p> <h2>How about programs for perpetrators?</h2> <p>Most existing standard intervention programs for perpetrators <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1524838018791268">do not consider</a> the links between trauma, mental health and perpetrating intimate partner violence. Such programs tend to have <a href="https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/a0012718">little</a> or <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2021.101974">mixed effects</a> on the behaviour of perpetrators.</p> <p>But we could improve these programs with a <a href="http://rcfv.archive.royalcommission.vic.gov.au/MediaLibraries/RCFamilyViolence/Reports/RCFV_Full_Report_Interactive.pdf">coordinated approach</a> including treating mental illness, drug use and trauma at the same time.</p> <p>Such “<a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014976341930449X?via%3Dihub">multicomponent</a>” programs show promise in meaningfully reducing violent behaviour. However, we need more rigorous and large-scale evaluations of how well they work.</p> <h2>What needs to happen next?</h2> <p>Supporting victim-survivors and improving interventions for perpetrators are both needed. However, intervening once violence has occurred is arguably too late.</p> <p>We need to direct our efforts towards broader, holistic approaches to prevent and reduce intimate partner violence, including addressing the underlying contributors to violence we’ve outlined.</p> <p>We also need to look more widely at preventing intimate partner violence and gendered violence.</p> <p>We need developmentally appropriate <a href="https://theconversation.com/4-things-our-schools-should-do-now-to-help-prevent-gender-based-violence-228993">education and skills-based programs</a> for adolescents to prevent the emergence of unhealthy relationship patterns before they become established.</p> <p>We also need to address the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278040/">social determinants of health</a> that contribute to violence. This includes improving access to affordable housing, employment opportunities and accessible health-care support and treatment options.</p> <p>All these will be critical if we are to break the cycle of intimate partner violence and improve outcomes for victim-survivors.</p> <hr /> <p><em>The National Sexual Assault, Family and Domestic Violence Counselling Line – 1800 RESPECT (1800 737 732) – is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week for any Australian who has experienced, or is at risk of, family and domestic violence and/or sexual assault.</em></p> <p><em>If this article has raised issues for you, or if you’re concerned about someone you know, call Lifeline on 13 11 14. In an emergency, call 000.</em><!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/229182/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/siobhan-odean-1356613">Siobhan O'Dean</a>, Postdoctoral Research Associate, The Matilda Centre for Research in Mental Health and Substance Use, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/lucinda-grummitt-1531503">Lucinda Grummitt</a>, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, The Matilda Centre for Research in Mental Health and Substance Use, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/steph-kershaw-1466426">Steph Kershaw</a>, Research Fellow, The Matilda Centre for Research in Mental Health and Substance Use, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images </em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/to-tackle-gendered-violence-we-also-need-to-look-at-drugs-trauma-and-mental-health-229182">original article</a>.</em></p> </div>

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“A lot has to be done”: Kyle Sandilands recalls personal domestic violence ordeal

<p><em><strong>Warning: This article contains details of domestic violence that some readers may find distressing.</strong></em></p> <p>Kyle Sandilands has opened up about his traumatic childhood and his first-hand experience with domestic violence, just days after pleading with the Prime Minister to make huge changes for victims. </p> <p>The KIISFM spoke candidly about experiencing violence at the hands of his father, as the conversation of domestic abuse in Australia has escalated given a recent spate of deadly violence. </p> <p>Sandilands recalled his childhood to co-host Jackie O, saying, “You’ve got to remember that I was a young child living in a domestic violence situation with my little brother and my mother.”</p> <p>“My father would kick off,” he said. “It was horrific. And I would remember I was only really little. And my brother, we’d go into my room and I’d create a land of fantasy in my room with the matchbox cars, and they’d be screaming and things would be smashed. And I would spend all of my time [there].”</p> <p>He went on to say he would do everything to comfort his brother, who is four years younger, during times of increased violence in his house, adding, “And I was little, I didn’t even know what was going on.”</p> <p>The radio host revealed that while he and his father mended their fractured relationship just before his death in 2016, the psychological effects of his difficult childhood remain. </p> <p>“And I don’t like to bring this up because my father is dead now. And we fixed any problems we had and he apologised, but still we had to live with it,” he shared. </p> <p>“He grabbed my mother by the back of her hair with one hand. And ripped her out of the bath backwards and dragged her kicking and screaming down the hallway in front of two little kids. And I can still see that as if it just happened half an hour ago. These things, they don’t leave little minds. They are in your head forever.”</p> <blockquote class="instagram-media" style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/reel/C6aq3qQPBNw/?utm_source=ig_embed&utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="14"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"> </div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <div style="padding: 12.5% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; margin-bottom: 14px; align-items: center;"> <div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(0px) translateY(7px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; height: 12.5px; transform: rotate(-45deg) translateX(3px) translateY(1px); width: 12.5px; flex-grow: 0; margin-right: 14px; margin-left: 2px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(9px) translateY(-18px);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 8px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 20px; width: 20px;"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 2px solid transparent; border-left: 6px solid #f4f4f4; border-bottom: 2px solid transparent; transform: translateX(16px) translateY(-4px) rotate(30deg);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: auto;"> <div style="width: 0px; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-right: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(16px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; flex-grow: 0; height: 12px; width: 16px; transform: translateY(-4px);"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-left: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(-4px) translateX(8px);"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center; margin-bottom: 24px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 224px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 144px;"> </div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" href="https://www.instagram.com/reel/C6aq3qQPBNw/?utm_source=ig_embed&utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A post shared by Kyle and Jackie O (@kyleandjackieo)</a></p> </div> </blockquote> <p>Sandilands then went on to discuss the Albanese government's new plan to give those trying to flee domestic violence situations $5,000 as part of the <a href="https://oversixty.com.au/finance/legal/anthony-albanese-s-new-925-million-pledge" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Leaving Violence Program</a>.</p> <p>"That’s all good and well, but sometimes the women don’t have access to a bank account."</p> <p>“You don’t want to put the $5000 into a joint bank account that the bloke has access to,” he said. “A lot has to be done.”</p> <p>“I know a lot of people are on the side of the victims here, but governments can sometimes try and do the right thing. But at the end of the day, the money must get to the victim. Not stuck in some bank account somewhere.”</p> <p>On Monday's radio show, Sandilands said that it would be more important to set up safe houses for those fleeing violent situations, rather than giving them funds.</p> <p>“I think the first thing we need to do is make the safe haven a place where a mum can get her kids at three in the morning, ring someone, get picked up and taken away and be safe,” he said on the show. </p> <p>“I think that’s where it should start because that’s something we can do immediately.”</p> <p><em><strong>If you or someone you know is experiencing sexual abuse or family violence contact the National Sexual Assault, Domestic Violence Counselling Service 24-hour helpline <a href="https://www.1800respect.org.au/?gclid=Cj0KCQiAt_PuBRDcARIsAMNlBdoOykv3RTO6q7pBf-PwIhINGV5jyQMqIFIdcYqX3Y52-h7w3-PI4BEaArwXEALw_wcB" target="_blank" rel="noopener">1800 RESPECT</a> on 1800 737 732.</strong></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: KIISFM</em></p>

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Anthony Albanese's new $925 million pledge

<p>Anthony Albanese has pledged $925 million to help victims of domestic violence flee dangerous situations, in the wake of the recent increase of violence against women. </p> <p>The Prime Minister established the Leaving Violence Program on Wednesday, which will invest $925m over a five year period to help women escape violence at home. </p> <p>Albanese convened an urgent national cabinet meeting after declaring violence against women a “national emergency” following the killings of 27 women across Australia this year.</p> <p>Following the crisis talks, the Prime Minister announced the permanent establishment of the government’s Leaving Violence Payment to assist people experiencing violence with the financial costs of leaving a violent situation. </p> <p>“Those eligible will be able to access up to $5000 in financial support along with referral services, risk assessments, and safety planning. This commitment builds on measures put in place by our government to help address financial barriers to escaping violence,” Mr Albanese said.</p> <p>Australia will also introduce legislation that will ban the creation and distribution of deep fake pornography and the sharing of sexually explicit material using technology such as artificial intelligence.</p> <p>Communications Minister Michelle Rowland said governments around the world were grappling with how to keep online spaces safe.</p> <p>"I think the other important point to note is that as a society, we do need to do more and this is a role not only for government, not only for regulators and civil society, but also for the platforms themselves," she said.</p> <p>"And part of this is putting the emphasis on the platforms to enforce their existing terms of service and where they are not doing that, to examine what are the measures governments can take."</p> <p>The government will also bring forward legislation in early August to outlaw the release of private information online with an intent to cause harm, known as doxxing.</p> <p>Albanese added that violence against women was a "national crisis", saying, "It's an issue for all of us to work together in the national interest to deal with what is a scourge of violence against women that is having a real impact out there, with one every four days a woman losing their life at the hand of a domestic or former domestic partner," he said.</p> <p>Longer-term priorities include strengthening accountability and consequences for perpetrators, including early intervention with high-risk perpetrators and serial offenders, and better support for victim and survivors.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em> </p>

Legal

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"It's up to men": Anthony Albanese joins violence against women rally

<p>Anthony Albanese has joined a rally in Canberra to protest the recent spate of acts of violence against women, admitting his government hasn't "done enough" to ensure Aussie women are protected. </p> <p>Addressing the 5,000-strong crowd at Parliament House, Mr Albanese delivered a fiery speech, demanding nationwide change to all levels of Australian society and asking protesters to hold him “accountable” for his government’s actions. </p> <p>Mr Albanese said Australia needed to change its “culture”, “attitudes” and “legal system” to end the scourge of violence against women that has already allegedly claimed the lives of 26 women this year.</p> <p>“We’re here today to demand that governments of all levels, must do better, including my own, and every state and territory government,” he said. </p> <p>“We’re here as well to say that society, and Australia, must do better. We need to change the culture, we need to change attitudes, we need to change the legal system."</p> <p>Mr Albanese spoke about some of the actions his government had taken to address the problem, including the introduction of domestic violence payments.</p> <p>A protester interrupted, saying “it’s not enough”.</p> <p>The prime minister replied, “I agree it’s not enough. I said that. We need to do more.”</p> <p>Mr Albanese finished his speech by calling the problem a “national crisis” and said one or two months of funding would not be enough to solve it.</p> <p>“It’s up to men to change men’s behaviour as well,” he said. “Yes, people do need to be made accountable and I’ll be accountable for what my government does.”</p> <p>Thousands took to the grounds of Parliament House on Sunday to listen to Albanese's address, where one of the event organisers Sarah Williams from the company WWYW (What Were You Wearing?), claims the Prime Minister lied to the crowd at the start of his stirring speech.</p> <p>In his speech in the afternoon, Mr Albanese suggested he had asked the rally organisers for permission to speak but had been knocked back. </p> <p>“We did ask to speak, myself and (Finance minister) Katy (Gallagher) and we were told that’s not possible,” he said to the 5000 strong crowd.</p> <p>“And that’s fine, we respect the organisers’ right to do that.”</p> <p>However, Ms Williams took to social media after the event to say the Prime Minister had "lied to the country". </p> <p>“The Prime Minister of Australia lied to his country today,” she began. </p> <p>“Representatives from (Finance Minister Katy) Gallagher and Albanese’s offices both said this morning that they were sure Katy would be happy to speak. Not the Prime Minister.”</p> <p>“He never asked to speak. For him to not only demand he speak because he was being heckled, but lie was disgraceful."</p> <p>“He demonstrated today what entitlement looks like. A man with power trying to diminish a vulnerable young woman.”</p> <p>In an awkward and tense exchange, Ms Williams then demanded the politicians show their commitment to the organisation’s demands, and declare that the recent spate of murders of women by men was a national emergency. </p> <p>However, the Labor ministers appeared non-responsive and confused, initially refusing to front the rally, a move which brought boos and heckling from the audience. </p> <p>“Why are you even here?” one protester yelled from the crowd.</p> <p>“Shame on you,” shouted another.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images / Instagram</em></p>

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Michael Slater hit with 19 charges over alleged domestic violence

<p>Michael Slater, a former Australian Test cricketer is being held in police custody after being charged with more than a dozen offences over alleged domestic violence. </p> <p>Slater, 54, had his case briefly heard in Maroochydore Magistrates Court on Monday.</p> <p>It was reported by the <em>ABC </em>that he did not appear and no plea was entered.</p> <p>The charges include domestic violence offences of unlawful stalking or intimidation, breaking into a dwelling with intent at night, common assault, assault occasioning bodily harm and choking or suffocation.</p> <p>The 19 charges relate to offences allegedly committed on Queensland’s Sunshine Coast between December 5, 2023 and April 12 2024.</p> <p>Slater was also charged with breaching bail and and 10 counts of contravening a domestic violence order. </p> <p>He was then remanded in custody, with his case mentioned in the same court on Tuesday afternoon.</p> <p>During that second hearing, Slater <span style="font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Open Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif;">collapsed in court after failing in his bid for freedom over an alleged domestic violence incident. </span>Upon learning that his bid for bail had been refused, the former cricket great placed his head in his hands then collapsed while being led back to the cells by Corrective Services staff.</p> <p>Slater made his debut during the 1993 Ashes tour and played 74 tests for Australia. </p> <p>He amassed 5,312 runs and played 42 one-day internationals. </p> <p>Since retiring from cricket in 2004, he has had a successful TV commentary career. </p> <p><em>Image: Getty</em></p>

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"I was terrified": Law & Order star reveals traumatic past

<p><em>Warning: This story contains graphic content.</em></p> <p>Mariska Hargitay, who plays Olivia Benson, a character that investigate rapists on <em>Law &amp; Order: Special Victims Unit, </em>has revealed that she too is a victim of sexual assault. </p> <p>The actress opened up about her traumatic past in a powerful essay written for <a href="https://people.com/mariska-hargitay-experience-rape-renewal-reckoning-8424247" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>People Magazine</em></a>, where she revealed that she was raped by “a friend" when she was in her thirties. </p> <p>"A man raped me in my thirties," she bravely revealed in the essay. </p> <p>"It wasn’t sexual at all. It was dominance and control. Overpowering control."</p> <p>The actress revealed that he was a friend who "made a unilateral decision" and recalled the fear she felt when the incident occurred. </p> <p>"He grabbed me by the arms and held me down. I was terrified," she said. </p> <p>"I didn’t want it to escalate to violence. I now know it was already sexual violence, but I was afraid he would become physically violent.</p> <p>"I went into freeze mode, a common trauma response when there is no option to escape. I checked out of my body," she recalled. </p> <p>Hargitay, who is the daughter of the late actress Jane Mansfield, said that she never thought of herself as a "survivor", and often "minimised" what happened to her when she talked about it with others. </p> <p>"My husband Peter remembers me saying, “I mean, it wasn’t rape," she wrote. </p> <p>"Then things started shifting in me, and I began talking about it more in earnest with those closest to me. They were the first ones to call it what it was."</p> <p>The actress said that she wants other survivors to feel "no shame" about sexual assault and wants "this violence to end." </p> <p>She added that justice "may look different for each survivor," but for her she wants "an acknowledgment and an apology" after what happened. </p> <p>"This is a painful part of my story. The experience was horrible. But it doesn’t come close to defining me, in the same way that no other single part of my story defines me," she concluded, adding that she feels for all sexual violence survivors. </p> <p>"I’m turning 60, and I’m so deeply grateful for where I am. I’m renewed and I’m flooded with compassion for all of us who have suffered. And I’m still proudly in process."</p> <p>Hargitay started her own foundation, the Joyful Heart Foundation, in 2004 to help survivors of sexual assault. </p> <p><em>Image: Getty</em></p>

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"It was a relief": Rebecca Gibney opens up on mental health struggles

<p>Rebecca Gibney has revealed what a "relief" it was to finally open up about the mental health struggles she faced from 14 to 30-years-old. </p> <p>The New Zealand actress, 58, said she spent a lot of that time "pretending" she was okay despite growing up around domestic violence, as her mother suffered from abuse in the hands of Gibney's late father, Austin. </p> <p>In an interview with <em>Stellar</em> on Saturday, the <em>Packed to the Rafters </em>star shared that she is "loving" how mental health is now being framed. </p> <p>“When I started talking about my mental health struggles and anxiety ... it was a relief,” she told the publication. </p> <p>“I could drop the mask of pretending that I was OK. What I’m loving seeing is that more and more people are now going, ‘I’m not OK’”.</p> <p>Gibney first opened up about her struggles in 2017, when she opened up about the abuse her mother faced and how she was “beaten so badly she had bruises for six months on her legs.</p> <p>“She’d always shut the doors ... you’d hear the yelling and the shouting and the slapping, but you’d never actually see it," she told <em>Women's Day</em>, at the time. </p> <p>After Gibney's father died in 1982, the actress began seeing a therapist, but was "on Valium and in a dark place for quite a while”.</p> <p>In her latest interview with <em>Stellar</em>, Gibney also added that more needed to be done to prevent domestic violence and help survivors. </p> <p>“We still don’t want to talk about it. We need to really drill down (and question), ‘Why is this happening?’ We need more education, more centres," she said. </p> <p>“We need people to be able to get the help they need.”</p> <p><em>Images: Instagram</em></p> <p> </p>

Mind

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Hallucinations in the movies tend to be about chaos, violence and mental distress. But they can be positive too

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/christopher-patterson-308185">Christopher Patterson</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-wollongong-711">University of Wollongong</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/nicholas-procter-147517">Nicholas Procter</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-south-australia-1180"><em>University of South Australia</em></a></em></p> <p>Hallucinations are often depicted in the movies as terrifying experiences. Think Jake Gyllenhaal seeing a monstrous rabbit in <em><a href="https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0246578/">Donnie Darko</a></em>, Leonardo DiCaprio experiencing the torture of <em><a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/au/blog/reel-therapy/201002/shutter-island-separating-fact-fiction">Shutter Island</a></em>, Natalie Portman in <em><a href="https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0947798/">Black Swan</a></em>, or Joaquin Phoenix as the <em><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/film/2019/oct/21/joker-mental-illness-joaquin-phoenix-dangerous-misinformed">Joker</a></em>.</p> <p>Each character experiences some form of psychological distress. Scenes connect to, or even explain, a decline into chaos and violence.</p> <p>Experiencing hallucinations can be distressing for some people and their loved ones. However, focusing solely on such depictions perpetuates myths and misconceptions about hallucinations. They also potentially perpetuate harmful stereotypes of mental distress.</p> <p>Movies such as Joker use a broad, <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/film/2019/oct/21/joker-mental-illness-joaquin-phoenix-dangerous-misinformed">arguably incorrect</a>, brush to connect hallucinations, mental health issues and violence. This reinforces the misconception that hallucinations always indicate mental health issues, when this is not necessarily true.</p> <h2>What are hallucinations?</h2> <p>Hallucinations are perceptions that occur without a corresponding external stimulus. They can involve any of the human senses.</p> <p>Auditory hallucinations involve hearing things that aren’t there, such as voices or sounds. Visual hallucinations involve seeing things that aren’t there, such as lights, objects or people. Tactile hallucinations involve feeling things that aren’t there, such as a sensation of something crawling on your skin. Gustatory hallucinations involve taste and smell.</p> <p>People often confuse hallucinations and delusions. The two can be related, but they are not the same thing. Delusions are false beliefs, firmly held by a person despite evidence to the contrary. A person might believe someone is following them (a delusion), and see and hear that figure (a hallucination).</p> <p>Before the 17th century, hallucinations were commonly thought to be of <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00991/full">cultural and religious</a> significance.</p> <p>However, between the mid-1600s and 1700s, hallucinations began to be understood as medical concerns, related to both mental and physical illnesses. This medical lens of hallucination remains. Now we know which <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2702442/">parts of the brain</a> are activated when someone has a hallucination.</p> <h2>What causes hallucinations?</h2> <p>Hallucinations can be a sign of serious mental health issues. The presence or experience of hallucinations is, for example, one of the criteria used to <a href="https://www.psychiatry.org/File%20Library/Psychiatrists/Practice/DSM/APA_DSM-5-Schizophrenia.pdf">diagnose schizophrenia</a> (delusions are another).</p> <p>Hallucinations may also provide insight into mental health issues such as bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and depression.</p> <p>However, hallucinations can also be linked to other medical conditions.</p> <p>Hallucinations can be caused by fever, as well as disease or damage impacting the brain or <a href="https://theconversation.com/what-is-charles-bonnet-syndrome-the-eye-condition-that-causes-hallucinations-122322">optic nerves</a>. Parkinson’s disease causes visual, auditory and tactile hallucinations <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116251/">in up to 75% of people</a>. Epilepsy and migraine headaches are also linked to hallucinations, and can cause perceptual disturbances, sometimes for days. Substance use, particularly of <a href="https://theconversation.com/weekly-dose-ayahuasca-a-cautionary-tale-for-tourists-eager-to-try-this-shamanic-brew-73953">hallucinogenic drugs</a> such as LSD or ketamine, can also cause hallucinations.</p> <p>Hallucinations can also occur in people without any underlying medical conditions. For example, some people may experience hallucinations during times of <a href="https://academic.oup.com/schizophreniabulletin/article/46/6/1367/5939754">extreme distress or grief</a>.</p> <p>Environmental factors such as <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00303/full">sleep deprivation</a> can cause a range of perceptual disturbances, including visual and auditory hallucinations. <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4354964/">Sensory deprivation</a>, such as being placed in a soundproof room, can also cause hallucinations.</p> <p>But still, the common image that hallucinations are connected only to mental health issues persists.</p> <h2>Hallucinations can be frightening, but not always</h2> <p>Hallucinations can be frightening for people, and their families. And the <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0020764016675888">stigma</a> and misconceptions surrounding hallucinations can have a significant impact on someone who experiences them.</p> <p>People who have hallucinations may be afraid or embarrassed of being considered “bizarre” or “unsafe”, and therefore may avoid seeking help.</p> <p>But hallucinations are <a href="https://www.intervoiceonline.org/voices-visions/voices-as-a-gift">not always scary or disturbing</a>. Some hallucinations can be neutral or even pleasant. People have been sharing on social media their positive and empowering experience of hallucinations. In the example below, we see one person’s positive experience of hearing voices. Yet we rarely see such depictions of hallucinations in the movies.</p> <hr /> <p><iframe id="tc-infographic-853" class="tc-infographic" style="border: none;" src="https://cdn.theconversation.com/infographics/853/9f702c4fefadeb810f9d64d7b4512b39a655a262/site/index.html" width="100%" height="400px" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <hr /> <h2>How to support someone having hallucinations</h2> <p>If you are with someone who is having hallucinations, particularly if these are new or distressing for them, here are several ways you can support them:</p> <ul> <li> <p>ask the person if they want to talk about what they are experiencing and listen to them without judgment: “I cannot hear what you are hearing, can you tell me about it?”</p> </li> <li> <p><a href="https://tuneinnotout.com/videos/r-u-ok-ask-experts-nicholas-procter/">listen</a>. Don’t argue or blame. Acknowledge that hallucinations are real to the person, even if they are seemingly unusual and not based in reality: “I cannot see what you see, but I do understand you see it.”</p> </li> <li> <p>empathise with how the person feels about their experiences. “I cannot feel or taste it, but I can imagine it would be a difficult experience. I can see how much it is concerning you.”</p> </li> <li> <p>support someone to seek care. Persistent or distressing hallucinations should always be evaluated by a qualified health professional. Establishing potential causes is important: “I cannot hear it like you, but let’s talk to a health professional about it. They can help us understand what might be happening.”</p> </li> <li> <p>encourage the person to <a href="https://www.intervoiceonline.org/national-networks#content">reach out to their peers</a> as well as to <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01612840.2023.2189953?src=recsys">hearing voices groups</a> for ongoing support.</p> </li> </ul> <p><em>We’d like to acknowledge <a href="https://www.nswmentalhealthcommission.com.au/staff-profile/tim-heffernan">Tim Heffernan</a>, Deputy Commissioner of the Mental Health Commission of New South Wales, who contributed to this article.</em></p> <p><em>If this article has raised issues for you, or if you’re concerned about someone you know, call Lifeline on 13 11 14. <!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></em></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/christopher-patterson-308185">Christopher Patterson</a>, Senior Lecturer, School of Nursing, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-wollongong-711">University of Wollongong</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/nicholas-procter-147517">Nicholas Procter</a>, Professor and Chair: Mental Health Nursing, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-south-australia-1180">University of South Australia</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/hallucinations-in-the-movies-tend-to-be-about-chaos-violence-and-mental-distress-but-they-can-be-positive-too-204547">original article</a>.</em></p>

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“This is disgusting”: Mural for murdered women defaced with graffiti

<p dir="ltr">A street artist has been captured painting over a mural depicting the names and photos of women murdered across Australia in acts of domestic violence. </p> <p dir="ltr">The mural, plastered on Melbourne’s famous Hosier Lane, depicts some of the almost 80 women killed since the start of 2023, and the locations they died around Australia. </p> <p dir="ltr">The mural also shows the alarming statistics of domestic violence across Australia in data compiled by <a href="https://australianfemicidewatch.org" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The RED HEART Campaign</a> - an ongoing memorial project dedicated to tracking the known women and children killed in acts of gendered violence.</p> <p dir="ltr">The mural was painted in the lane on International Women’s Day (March 8th), and was defaced just 10 days later. </p> <p dir="ltr">An unknown street artist was captured on video spray painting over the women’s faces, with the words “13 WOLF 69” covering most of the mural, as the beginning of a large orange text covering the southeast corner of the map.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr" lang="en">When murdered women are erased for the second time! <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/femicide?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#femicide</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/shematters?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#shematters</a> <a href="https://t.co/TYpLQFmpCx">pic.twitter.com/TYpLQFmpCx</a></p> <p>— Sherele Moody (Femicide Researcher) 🌈 (@ShereleMoody) <a href="https://twitter.com/ShereleMoody/status/1636880510269128705?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">March 18, 2023</a></p></blockquote> <p dir="ltr">The video, posted by the campaign founder Sherele Moody, then pans slowly to capture the artist still spraying the wall with orange paint – what seem to be the finishing touches to the large piece that stretches for metres toward Flinders Street.</p> <p dir="ltr">“That’s more important, that’s lovely,” someone can be heard sarcastically saying in the footage.</p> <p dir="ltr">“That’s not even art!”</p> <p dir="ltr">Sherele captioned the video as an example of “when murdered women are erased for a second time”.</p> <p dir="ltr">“The dude could have moved his scribble a few feet and not painted over the faces of murdered women,” she added.</p> <p dir="ltr">“The Lane is pretty big – there’s room for all of us!”</p> <p dir="ltr">Supporters of the campaign immediately reacted in disgust to the “selfish, heartless artist”, with many saying the disregard for the mural really “hurts”.</p> <p dir="ltr">“What the actual f,” one woman wrote.</p> <p dir="ltr">“This is disgusting. This is about murdered women and a memorial. When did we become so disrespectful.”</p> <p dir="ltr">While most of the backlash was in support of the advocates, others questioned whether the artist was even aware of what he had done or was partially covering. </p> <p dir="ltr">Others simply said it was the harsh nature of Melbourne’s internationally renowned street art culture.</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image credits: Twitter</em></p>

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Former Miss Australia accused of domestic violence

<p>A former Miss Australia and previous Labor member of Tasmania parliament has been accused of emotionally abusing her partner, including physical violence over the course of a decade.</p> <p>Kathryn Isobel Hay, 47, is yet to enter a plea to the family violence charge of emotional abuse or intimidation, which allegedly spanned from 2011 to 2022.</p> <p>Hay won the Miss Tasmania and Miss Australia crown in 1999 before serving as a Labor member in the electorate of Bass from 2002 to 2006.</p> <p>She has been accused of regularly abusing her partner, Troy Shane Richardson, calling him a c***, pushing him, accusing him of infidelity and telling family members he did nothing around the house.</p> <p>She also allegedly told him he was worthless and useless and assaulted him by throwing a bowl of cereal at him.</p> <p>According to court documents, Hay allegedly assaulted Mr Richardson by slapping him across the face multiple times and punching him in the face.</p> <p>Among dozens of accusations, Hay told Mr Richardson that she would have been happier with her late husband.</p> <p>Hay also drafted correspondence to the Director of Public Prosecutions on Mr Richardson’s behalf without his consent and allegedly discouraged him from seeing a counsellor.</p> <p>Hay, who briefly appeared in Launceston Magistrates Court, was granted bail and will next appear before the court on May 29.</p> <p><em>Help is available, speak with someone today.</em><br /><em>1800 RESPECT (1800 737 732)</em><br /><em>Lifeline 13 11 14</em></p> <p><em>Image credit: Facebook</em></p>

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“Those attackers will be after me. I know they will.”: Horrifying social media trend leaves woman scared to shop alone

<p>A disturbing social media trend is prompting teenagers to attack unsuspecting victims in public while others record the violence.</p> <p>Videos of the attack involving South Australian teenagers were posted in Facebook groups where members are encouraged to continue the violence and upload more footage.</p> <p>In one video, a woman shopping at a Woolworths store is brutally assaulted by a teenage girl as her friend records and encourages the beating.</p> <p>In the video, the teenage girls can be seen strolling into the supermarket before picking a target - Jessica Burke, an unsuspecting shopper who happened to walk in front of the girls with her trolley.</p> <p>“Bash the s*** girl, bash her,” the girl recording says to her friend.</p> <p>The violent attack then begins with the teenager grabbing Ms Burke by the hair; dragging her to her knees.</p> <p>After Burke is on the ground, the teenager proceeds to kick and punch her in the head repeatedly in front of horrified shoppers, including children screaming in fear.</p> <p>To see the harrowing footage in full, <a href="https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-11731143/Woolworths-shopper-bashed-teens-social-media-trend-urges-attack-civilians.html#v-4575687196736504272" target="_blank" rel="noopener">head here</a>. Caution: disturbing footage; viewer discretion advised.</p> <p>The woman suffered injuries to her head but says the psychological effects have been the most painful.</p> <p>“I can't go down to the shops like Woolies, Coles or Big W without someone with me because I'm too scared,” Ms Burke told 9News.</p> <p>"Those attackers will be after me. I know they will.”</p> <p>Several other videos online show the same attacker to be the main offender, assaulting other teenagers in parking lots and in the street.</p> <p>South Australian Police commissioner, Greg Stevens, said people encouraging the violence can also be charged, not just the attacker.</p> <p>“It is an offence to incite an offence,” he said.</p> <p>“If people are actively engaging in an activity that encourages other people to commit a crime then they can be held accountable for that.”</p> <p>Some local residents believe that even though the teenagers are being charged, they are then released on bail.</p> <p>“These days it's just a slap on the wrist and send you on your way,” Ms Burke's partner, Tarquin Gray said.</p> <p>“The system has just gone backwards.”</p> <p>“It is very complex and it is made more complex when it involves young people committing offences,' Mr Stevens said.</p> <p>Image Credit: Getty</p>

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“She could’ve been protected that day”: Gabby Petito’s family files lawsuit

<p dir="ltr">The family of Gabby Petito, whose boyfriend admitted to killing her last year, have launched a wrongful death suit against Utah’s Moab Police Department, claiming officers’ negligence led to her death.</p> <p dir="ltr">Ms Petito and her boyfriend Brian Laundrie were stopped by officers in Moab last year after a bystander allegedly saw Mr Laundrie hit Ms Petito and reported the incident to police.</p> <p dir="ltr">The couple were ultimately not cited for domestic violence, and Ms Petito’s body was found weeks later after she had been strangled.</p> <p dir="ltr">On Thursday local time, Ms Petito’s parents and other family members announced their intent to sue the department for $US 50 million ($AU 77 million).</p> <p dir="ltr">The suit claims that police officers failed to effectively intervene in a domestic violence situation between Ms Petito and Mr Laundrie by failing to issue a domestic violence citation, claiming that officers disregarded signs of violence they should have been trained to notice.</p> <p dir="ltr">“She could’ve been protected that day,” Nicole Schmidt, Ms Petito’s mother, said.</p> <p dir="ltr">The suit also claims that police officers “coached Gabby to provide answers that the officers used to justify their decision not to enforce Utah law", with the family claiming that officers “egregiously misinterpreted Gabby’s extreme emotional distress, seeing it as the cause of the domestic violence rather than its result”, per AP.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Despite the witness’s report, the officers treated Brian as if he were the victim of domestic abuse rather than the perpetrator,” the lawsuit reads, per Fox News.</p> <p dir="ltr">“In fact, the officers never directly questioned Brian about whether he hit Gabby or how she ended up with scratches on her face.</p> <p dir="ltr">“The purpose of this lawsuit is to honour Gabby’s legacy by demanding accountability and working for change in the system to protect victims of domestic abuse and violence and to prevent such tragedies in the future.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Moab police officer Eric Pratt is also alleged to have been “fundamentally biased” in his investigation by “choosing to believe Gabby's abuser, ignoring evidence that Gabby was the victim and intentionally looking for loopholes to get around the requirements of Utah law and his duty to protect Gabby", </p> <p dir="ltr">The family’s complaint is based on the claim of an unnamed woman referred to as “Witness 1”, who alleged that Officer Pratt threatened to kill her after their relationship ended while he was the police chief in the rural town of Salina, Utah.</p> <p dir="ltr">In a statement after the lawsuit was filed, the city of Moab said Ms Petito’s death was tragic but not the fault of the police department.</p> <p dir="ltr">"Our officers acted with kindness, respect and empathy toward Ms Petito," city spokesperson Lisa Adams said.</p> <p dir="ltr">"No one could have predicted the tragedy that would occur weeks later and hundreds of miles away, and the City of Moab will ardently defend against this lawsuit."</p> <p dir="ltr">In a statement, the Moab Police Department said the 22-year-old’s death was a “terrible tragedy” that no-one could have predicted.</p> <p dir="ltr">“The death of Gabrielle Petito in Wyoming is a terrible tragedy, and we feel profound sympathy for the Petito and Schmidt families and the painful loss they have endured,” it read.</p> <p dir="ltr">“The death of Gabrielle Petito in Wyoming is a terrible tragedy, and we feel profound sympathy for the Petito and Schmidt families and the painful loss they have endured.</p> <p dir="ltr">“The attorneys for the Petito family seem to suggest that somehow our officers could see into the future based on this single interaction.</p> <p dir="ltr">“In truth, on August 12, no one could have predicted the tragedy that would occur weeks later and hundreds of miles away, and the City of Moab will ardently defend against this lawsuit.”</p> <p dir="ltr">The suit comes after a notice of claim was filed in August, and after an independent investigation found that police made “several unintentional mistakes”, including not issuing a domestic violence citation, in January.</p> <p><span id="docs-internal-guid-4e45f712-7fff-846d-6ac5-c39de6e6428f"></span></p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image: Instagram</em></p>

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