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"Beyond devastated": Four-month-old baby dies after family outing

<p>A four-month-old baby girl has died after being exposed to extreme heat during a July 4 outing with her family. </p> <p>Weather records show that temperatures in the region soared to 120°F (48<span style="font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Open Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif;">°C) last Friday. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Open Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif;">The infant, identified as T</span>anna Rae Wroblewski, had been out on a boat on Lake Havasu with her parents when she suddenly fell ill and lost consciousness on Friday evening.  </p> <p>Her family performed CPR until first responders arrived and were able to rush her to a local medical centre. </p> <p>She was then airlifted to Phoenix Children's hospital, where she was pronounced dead. </p> <p>Her parents are struggling to come to terms with their daughter's death, with mum Tanya Wroblewski saying: “We are beyond devastated, heartbroken, there are just no words.” </p> <p>“I will never understand why you had to leave us, you were just too perfect. I love you endlessly and I will look for you everywhere angel,” she shared in a Facebook post. </p> <p>The medical examiner has yet to release the infant's official cause of death, but authorities suspect that her death was brought on by a heat-related illness according to local news outlet, <em>News 12</em>. </p> <p>Tannas mum has also shared how difficult it was trying to explain her death to the infant's older sister. </p> <p>“We don’t understand why you had to leave, how could she?” she wrote. </p> <p>“She’s left out toys for you and made sure your favourites were all in the bassinet before bed the last couple nights. We are so heartbroken without you baby girl.”</p> <p>Her death is still being investigated by local authorities. </p> <p><em>Images: Facebook / Alyssa Wolf Wroblewski/ NY Post</em></p> <p> </p>

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"While I was home": Goldie Hawn robbed twice in four months

<p>Hollywood star Goldie Hawn recently opened up about a harrowing experience she and longtime partner Kurt Russell endured: two home invasions within the span of just a few months.</p> <p>Hawn shared the details of these incidents during a candid conversation on Kelly Ripa's podcast, "Let's Talk Off Camera".</p> <p>The first robbery occurred while Hawn and Russell were out for dinner. "I went up the stairs, I walked into my closet, and I just lost it," Hawn recalled, describing the moment they returned home to find their house had been burglarised. The intruders had broken in from the balcony, targeting their bedroom and closets. "They completely knocked down my door, which is a safe door, so they're very, very sophisticated, and they got a lot of my goodies," she added.</p> <p>Following the initial invasion, Hawn believed the chances of a repeat incident were slim. However, just four months later, she faced another terrifying experience – this time while she was alone at home. "I hear this big thump upstairs, and I was alone," she reflected. Initially dismissing it as a sonic boom or some other unusual noise, she later discovered that intruders "were trying to get in my bedroom while I was in the house". </p> <p>The dual invasions profoundly impacted Hawn, prompting her to enhance her home security measures significantly. Despite the increased safety precautions, the traumatic events have left a lasting impression.</p> <p>In light of these experiences, Hawn expressed a desire to relocate to Atlanta, where her family resides. "It's so lovely there, I said, 'Hey, guys, why don't we all move there?'" she shared. The idea of a family compound has always been a dream for Hawn and her loved ones. "We've always said if one moves, we all have to move together. That's what we've always said." </p> <p><em>Image: Instagram</em></p>

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‘Sleeping on it’ really does help and four other recent sleep research breakthroughs

<div class="theconversation-article-body"><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/dan-denis-158199">Dan Denis</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-york-1344">University of York</a></em></p> <p>Twenty-six years. That is roughly <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-022-34624-8">how much of our lives</a> are spent asleep. Scientists have been trying to explain why we spend so much time sleeping since at least the <a href="https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/alcmaeon/">ancient Greeks</a>, but pinning down the exact functions of sleep has proven to be difficult.</p> <p>During the past decade, there has been a surge of interest from researchers in the nature and function of sleep. New experimental models coupled with advances in technology and analytical techniques are giving us a deeper look inside the sleeping brain. Here are some of the biggest recent breakthroughs in the science of sleep.</p> <h2>1. We know more about lucid dreaming</h2> <p>No longer on the fringes, the neuroscientific study of dreaming has now become mainstream.</p> <p>US researchers in a 2017 study woke their participants up at regular intervals during the night and asked them what was going through their minds prior to the alarm call. Sometimes participants couldn’t recall any dreaming. The study team then looked at what was <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/nn.4545">happening in the participant’s brain</a> moments before waking.</p> <p>Participants’ recall of dream content was associated with increased activity in the posterior hot zone, an area of the brain closely <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05097-x">linked to conscious awareness</a>. Researchers could predict the presence or absence of dream experiences by monitoring this zone in real time.</p> <p>Another exciting development in the study of dreams is research into lucid dreams, in which <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-ability-to-control-dreams-may-help-us-unravel-the-mystery-of-consciousness-52394">you are aware that</a> you are dreaming. A 2021 study established <a href="https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(21)00059-2?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0960982221000592%3Fshowall%3Dtrue">two-way communication</a> between a dreamer and a researcher. In this experiment, participants signalled to the researcher that they were dreaming by moving their eyes in a pre-agreed pattern.</p> <p>The researcher read out maths problems (what is eight minus six?). The dreamer could respond to this question with eye movements. The dreamers were accurate, indicating they had access to high level cognitive functions. The researchers used <a href="https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/polysomnography/about/pac-20394877">polysomnography</a>, which monitors bodily functions such as breathing and brain activity during sleep, to confirm that participants were asleep.</p> <p>These discoveries have dream researchers excited about the future of “interactive dreaming”, such as practising a skill or solving a problem in our dreams.</p> <h2>2. Our brain replays memories while we sleep</h2> <p>This year marks the centenary of the first demonstration that <a href="https://www.jstor.org/stable/1414040?origin=crossref">sleep improves our memory</a>. However, a 2023 review of recent research has shown that memories formed during the day <a href="https://portlandpress.com/emergtoplifesci/article/7/5/487/233796/Neural-reactivation-during-human-sleep">get reactivated</a> while we are sleeping. Researchers discovered this using machine learning techniques to “decode” the contents of the sleeping brain.</p> <p><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-24357-5">A 2021 study</a> found that training algorithms to distinguish between different memories while awake makes it possible to see the same neural patterns re-emerge in the sleeping brain. A different study, also in 2021, found that the more times these patterns re-emerge during sleep, <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-23520-2">the bigger the benefit</a> to memory.</p> <p>In other approaches, scientists have been able to reactivate certain memories by <a href="https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(19)31035-8?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0960982219310358%3Fshowall%3Dtrue">replaying sounds</a> associated with the memory in question while the participant was asleep. A <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144680/">2020 meta-analysis of 91 experiments</a> found that when participants’ memory was tested after sleep they remembered more of the stimuli whose sounds were played back during sleep, compared with control stimuli whose sounds were not replayed.</p> <p>Research has also shown that sleep strengthens memory for the <a href="https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.2202657119">most important aspects</a> of an experience, restructures our memories to form <a href="https://www.jneurosci.org/content/40/9/1909">more cohesive narratives</a> and helps us come up with <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956797619873344">solutions to problems</a> we are stuck on. Science is showing that sleeping on it really does help.</p> <h2>3. Sleep keeps our minds healthy</h2> <p>We all know that a lack of sleep makes us feel bad. Laboratory sleep deprivation studies, where researchers keep willing participants awake throughout the night, have been combined with <a href="https://www.open.edu/openlearn/body-mind/health/health-sciences/how-fmri-works">functional MRI brain scans</a> to paint a detailed picture of the sleep-deprived brain. These studies have shown that a lack of sleep severely disrupts the <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/nrn.2017.55">connectivity between</a> different brain networks. These changes include a breakdown of connectivity between brain regions <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11682-018-9868-2">responsible for cognitive control</a>, and an amplification of those involved in <a href="https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(19)30761-4?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0960982219307614%3Fshowall%3Dtrue">threat and emotional processing</a>.</p> <p>The consequence of this is that the sleep-deprived brain is worse at <a href="https://academic.oup.com/cercor/article/33/5/1610/6573958">learning new information</a>, <a href="https://academic.oup.com/sleep/article/44/6/zsaa289/6053003">poorer at regulating emotions</a>, and unable to <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2167702620951511">suppress intrusive thoughts</a>. Sleep loss may even make you less likely to <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.3001733">help other people</a>. These findings may explain why poor sleep quality is so <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jsr.13930">ubiquitous in poor mental health</a>.</p> <h2>4. Sleep protects us against neurodegenerative diseases</h2> <p>Although we naturally <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-022-34624-8">sleep less as we age</a>, mounting evidence suggests that sleep problems earlier in life <a href="https://jnnp.bmj.com/content/91/3/236">increase the risk</a> of dementia.</p> <p>The build-up of β-amyloid, a <a href="https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/alzheimers-disease/causes/">metabolic waste product</a>, is one of the mechanisms underlying Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, it has become apparent that deep, undisturbed sleep is good for <a href="https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.aav5447">flushing these toxins</a> out of the brain. Sleep deprivation increases the the rate of build-up of β-amyloid in parts of the brain involved in memory, <a href="https://www.pnas.org/doi/full/10.1073/pnas.1721694115">such as the hippocampus</a>. A longitudinal study published in 2020 found that sleep problems were associated with a higher rate of β-amyloid accumulation at a follow-up <a href="https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(20)31171-4?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0960982220311714%3Fshowall%3Dtrue">four years later</a>. In a different study, published in 2022, sleep parameters <a href="https://elifesciences.org/articles/78191">forecasted the rate</a> of cognitive decline in participants over the following two years.</p> <h2>5. We can engineer sleep</h2> <p>The good news is that research is developing treatments to get a better night’s sleep and boost its benefits.</p> <p>For example, the <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jsr.14035">European Sleep Research Society</a> and the <a href="https://jcsm.aasm.org/doi/10.5664/jcsm.8986">American Academy of Sleep Medicine</a> recommend cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). <a href="https://www.cntw.nhs.uk/services/nctalkingtherapies/what-do-nc-talking-therapies-offer/cbt-i-cbt-for-insomnia/">CBT-I works by</a> identifying thoughts, feelings and behaviour that contribute to insomnia, which can then be modified to help promote sleep.</p> <p>In 2022, a CBT-I app became the <a href="https://www.nice.org.uk/news/article/nice-recommends-offering-app-based-treatment-for-people-with-insomnia-instead-of-sleeping-pills">first digital therapy</a> recommended by England’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for treatment on the NHS.</p> <p>These interventions can improve other aspects of our lives as well. A <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1087079221001416?via%3Dihub">2021 meta-analysis</a> of 65 clinical trials found that improving sleep via CBT-I reduced symptoms of depression, anxiety, rumination and stress.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/230484/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/dan-denis-158199">Dan Denis</a>, Marie Skłodowska-Curie Senior Research Fellow, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-york-1344">University of York</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/sleeping-on-it-really-does-help-and-four-other-recent-sleep-research-breakthroughs-230484">original article</a>.</em></p> </div>

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What are the four waves of feminism? And what comes next?

<p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/sharon-crozier-de-rosa-122804">S<em>haron Crozier-De Rosa</em></a><em>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-wollongong-711">University of Wollongong</a></em></p> <p>In Western countries, feminist history is generally packaged as a story of “waves”. The so-called first wave lasted from the mid-19th century to 1920. The second wave spanned the 1960s to the early 1980s. The third wave began in the mid-1990s and lasted until the 2010s. Finally, some say we are experiencing a fourth wave, which began in the mid-2010s and continues now.</p> <p>The first person to use “waves” was journalist Martha Weinman Lear, in her 1968 New York Times article, <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/1968/03/10/archives/the-second-feminist-wave.html">The Second Feminist Wave</a>, demonstrating that the women’s liberation movement was another <a href="https://www.vox.com/2018/3/20/16955588/feminism-waves-explained-first-second-third-fourth">“new chapter</a> in a grand history of women fighting together for their rights”. She was responding to anti-feminists’ framing of the movement as a “<a href="https://www.vox.com/2018/3/20/16955588/feminism-waves-explained-first-second-third-fourth">bizarre historical aberration</a>”.</p> <p><a href="https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/718868">Some feminists</a> criticise the usefulness of the metaphor. Where do feminists who preceded the first wave sit? For instance, Middle Ages feminist writer <a href="https://blogs.loc.gov/bibliomania/2023/08/30/christine-de-pizan/">Christine de Pizan</a>, or philosopher <a href="https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/wollstonecraft/">Mary Wollstonecraft</a>, author of <a href="https://www.penguin.com.au/books/a-vindication-of-the-rights-of-woman-9780141441252">A Vindication of the Rights of Woman</a> (1792).</p> <p>Does the metaphor of a single wave <a href="https://www.vox.com/2018/3/20/16955588/feminism-waves-explained-first-second-third-fourth">overshadow</a> the complex variety of feminist concerns and demands? And does this language exclude the <a href="https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/718868">non-West</a>, for whom the “waves” story is meaningless?</p> <p>Despite these concerns, countless feminists <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317322421_Finding_a_Place_in_History_The_Discursive_Legacy_of_the_Wave_Metaphor_and_Contemporary_Feminism">continue to use</a> “waves” to explain their position in relation to previous generations.</p> <h2>The first wave: from 1848</h2> <p>The first wave of feminism refers to the campaign for the vote. It began in the United States in 1848 with the <a href="https://www.loc.gov/exhibitions/women-fight-for-the-vote/about-this-exhibition/seneca-falls-and-building-a-movement-1776-1890/">Seneca Falls Convention</a>, where 300 gathered to debate Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s Declaration of Sentiments, outlining women’s inferior status and demanding suffrage – or, the right to vote.</p> <p>It continued over a decade later, in 1866, in Britain, with the presentation of a <a href="https://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/transformingsociety/electionsvoting/womenvote/parliamentary-collections/1866-suffrage-petition/presenting-the-petition/">suffrage petition</a> to parliament.</p> <p>This wave ended in 1920, when women were granted the right to vote in the US. (Limited women’s suffrage had been introduced in Britain two years earlier, in 1918.) First-wave activists believed once the vote had been won, women could use its power to enact other much-needed reforms, related to property ownership, education, employment and more.</p> <p>White leaders dominated the movement. They included longtime president of the the International Woman Suffrage Alliance <a href="https://cattcenter.iastate.edu/home/about-us/carrie-chapman-catt/">Carrie Chapman Catt</a> in the US, leader of the militant Women’s Social and Political Union <a href="https://www.britannica.com/biography/Emmeline-Pankhurst">Emmeline Pankhurst</a> in the UK, and <a href="https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/spence-catherine-helen-4627">Catherine Helen Spence</a> and <a href="https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/goldstein-vida-jane-6418">Vida Goldstein</a> in Australia.</p> <p>This has tended to obscure the histories of non-white feminists like evangelist and social reformer <a href="https://www.britannica.com/biography/Sojourner-Truth">Sojourner Truth</a> and journalist, activist and researcher <a href="https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/ida-b-wells-barnett">Ida B. Wells</a>, who were fighting on multiple fronts – including anti-slavery and anti-lynching –  as well as feminism.</p> <h2>The second wave: from 1963</h2> <p>The second wave coincided with the publication of US feminist Betty Friedan’s <a href="https://www.penguin.com.au/books/the-feminine-mystique-9780141192055">The Feminine Mystique</a> in 1963. Friedan’s “<a href="https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/powerful-complicated-legacy-betty-friedans-feminine-mystique-180976931/">powerful treatise</a>” raised critical interest in issues that came to define the women’s liberation movement until the early 1980s, like workplace equality, birth control and abortion, and women’s education.</p> <p>Women came together in “consciousness-raising” groups to share their individual experiences of oppression. These discussions informed and motivated public agitation for <a href="https://www.berghahnbooks.com/title/HaeberlenPolitics">gender equality and social change</a>. Sexuality and gender-based violence were other prominent second-wave concerns.</p> <p>Australian feminist Germaine Greer wrote <a href="https://www.harpercollins.com.au/9780007205011/the-female-eunuch/">The Female Eunuch</a>, published in 1970, which <a href="https://theconversation.com/friday-essay-the-female-eunuch-at-50-germaine-greers-fearless-feminist-masterpiece-147437">urged women to</a> “challenge the ties binding them to gender inequality and domestic servitude” – and to ignore repressive male authority by exploring their sexuality.</p> <p>Successful lobbying saw the establishment of refuges for women and children fleeing domestic violence and rape. In Australia, there were groundbreaking political appointments, including the world’s first Women’s Advisor to a national government (<a href="https://www.nma.gov.au/audio/landmark-women/transcripts/landmark-women-elizabeth-reid-181013.mp3-transcript">Elizabeth Reid</a>). In 1977, a <a href="https://www.whitlam.org/women-and-whitlam">Royal Commission on Human Relationships</a> examined families, gender and sexuality.</p> <p>Amid these developments, in 1975, Anne Summers published <a href="https://theconversation.com/damned-whores-and-gods-police-is-still-relevant-to-australia-40-years-on-mores-the-pity-47753">Damned Whores and God’s Police</a>, a scathing historical critique of women’s treatment in patriarchal Australia.</p> <p>At the same time as they made advances, so-called women’s libbers managed to anger earlier feminists with their distinctive claims to radicalism. Tireless campaigner <a href="https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/rich-ruby-sophia-14202">Ruby Rich</a>, who was president of the Australian Federation of Women Voters from 1945 to 1948, responded by declaring the only difference was her generation had called their movement “<a href="https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-296328435/findingaid">justice for women</a>”, not “liberation”.</p> <p>Like the first wave, mainstream second-wave activism proved largely irrelevant to non-white women, who faced oppression on intersecting gendered and racialised grounds. African American feminists produced their own critical texts, including bell hooks’ <a href="https://www.routledge.com/Aint-I-a-Woman-Black-Women-and-Feminism/hooks/p/book/9781138821514">Ain’t I a Woman? Black Women and Feminism</a> in 1981 and Audre Lorde’s <a href="https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/198292/sister-outsider-by-audre-lorde/">Sister Outsider</a> in 1984.</p> <h2>The third wave: from 1992</h2> <p>The third wave was announced in the 1990s. The term is popularly attributed to Rebecca Walker, daughter of African American feminist activist and writer <a href="https://alicewalkersgarden.com/about/">Alice Walker</a> (author of <a href="https://www.hachette.com.au/alice-walker/the-color-purple-now-a-major-motion-picture-from-oprah-winfrey-and-steven-spielberg">The Color Purple</a>).</p> <p>Aged 22, Rebecca proclaimed in a 1992 Ms. magazine <a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200404030632/http:/heathengrrl.blogspot.com/2007/02/becoming-third-wave-by-rebecca-walker.html">article</a>: “I am not a post-feminism feminist. I am the Third Wave.”</p> <p>Third wavers didn’t think gender equality had been more or less achieved. But they did share <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1464700119842555">post-feminists</a>’ belief that their foremothers’ concerns and demands were obsolete. They argued women’s experiences were now shaped by <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14680777.2016.1190046">very different</a> political, economic, technological and cultural conditions.</p> <p>The third wave has been described as “an <a href="https://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/beauty/meet-the-woman-who-coined-the-term-third-wave-feminism-20180302-p4z2mw.html">individualised feminism</a> that can not exist without diversity, sex positivity and intersectionality”.</p> <p>Intersectionality, <a href="https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1052&amp;context=uclf">coined</a> in 1989 by African American legal scholar Kimberlé Crenshaw, recognises that people can experience intersecting layers of oppression due to race, gender, sexuality, class, ethnicity and more. Crenshaw notes this was a “lived experience” before it was a term.</p> <p>In 2000, Aileen Moreton Robinson’s <a href="https://www.uqp.com.au/books/talkin-up-to-the-white-woman-indigenous-women-and-feminism-20th-anniversary-edition">Talkin’ Up to the White Woman: Indigenous Women and Feminism</a> expressed Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women’s frustration that white feminism did not adequately address the legacies of dispossession, violence, racism, and sexism.</p> <p>Certainly, the third wave accommodated <a href="https://paromitapain.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/10.10072F978-3-319-72917-6.pdf#page=112%22">kaleidoscopic views</a>. Some scholars claimed it “grappled with fragmented interests and objectives” – or micropolitics. These included ongoing issues such as sexual harassment in the workplace and a scarcity of women in positions of power.</p> <p>The third wave also gave birth to the <a href="https://www.nme.com/blogs/nme-blogs/brief-history-riot-grrrl-space-reclaiming-90s-punk-movement-2542166">Riot Grrrl</a> movement and “girl power”. Feminist punk bands like <a href="https://bikinikill.com/about/">Bikini Kill</a> in the US, <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/music/2022/nov/28/pussy-riot-beaten-jailed-exiled-taunting-putin">Pussy Riot</a> in Russia and Australia’s <a href="https://www.vice.com/en/article/mbknev/little-ugly-girls-tractor-album-single-premiere-2018">Little Ugly Girls</a> sang about issues like homophobia, sexual harassment, misogyny, racism, and female empowerment.</p> <p>Riot Grrrl’s <a href="https://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/riotgrrrlmanifesto.html">manifesto</a> states “we are angry at a society that tells us Girl = Dumb, Girl = Bad, Girl = Weak”. “Girl power” was epitomised by Britain’s more sugary, phenomenally popular Spice Girls, who were accused of peddling “<a href="https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2021/sep/14/spice-girls-how-girl-power-changed-britain-review-fabulous-and-intimate">‘diluted feminism’ to the masses</a>”.</p> <figure><iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/tAbhaguKARw?wmode=transparent&amp;start=0" width="440" height="260" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen"></iframe><figcaption><span class="caption">Riot Grrrrl sang about issues like homophobia, sexual harassment, misogyny and racism.</span></figcaption></figure> <h2>The fourth wave: 2013 to now</h2> <p>The fourth wave is epitomised by “<a href="https://vc.bridgew.edu/jiws/vol25/iss2/10/">digital or online feminism</a>” which gained currency in about <a href="https://www.vox.com/2018/3/20/16955588/feminism-waves-explained-first-second-third-fourth">2013</a>. This era is marked by mass online mobilisation. The fourth wave generation is connected via new communication technologies in ways that were not previously possible.</p> <p>Online mobilisation has led to spectacular street demonstrations, including the #metoo movement. #Metoo was first founded by Black activist <a href="https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/tarana-burke">Tarana Burke</a> in 2006, to support survivors of sexual abuse. The hashtag #metoo then went viral during the 2017 Harvey Weinstein <a href="https://www.npr.org/2022/10/28/1131500833/me-too-harvey-weinstein-anniversary">sexual abuse scandal</a>. It was used at least <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0747563221002193">19 million times</a> on Twitter (now X) alone.</p> <p>In January 2017, the <a href="https://www.womensmarch.com/">Women’s March</a> protested the inauguration of the decidedly misogynistic Donald Trump as US president. <a href="https://www.britannica.com/event/Womens-March-2017">Approximately 500,000</a> women marched in Washington DC, with demonstrations held simultaneously in <a href="https://www.routledge.com/Remembering-Womens-Activism/Crozier-De-Rosa-Mackie/p/book/9781138794894">81 nations</a> on all continents of the globe, even Antarctica.</p> <p>In 2021, the <a href="https://catalogue.nla.gov.au/catalog/8564388">Women’s March4Justice</a> saw some 110,000 women rallying at more than 200 events across Australian cities and towns, protesting workplace sexual harassment and violence against women, following high-profile cases like that of Brittany Higgins, revealing <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2023/nov/29/brittany-higgins-bruce-lehrmann-defamation-trial-evidence-stand-rape-allegations-liberal-party-ntwnfb#:%7E:text=Bruce%20Lehrmann%20has%20brought%20a,Wilkinson%20are%20defending%20the%20case.">sexual misconduct</a> in the Australian houses of parliament.</p> <p>Given the prevalence of online connection, it is not surprising fourth wave feminism has reached across geographic regions. The Global Fund for Women <a href="https://www.globalfundforwomen.org/movements/me-too/">reports</a> that #metoo transcends national borders. In China, it is, among other things, #米兔 (translated as “<a href="https://www.ft.com/content/61903744-9540-11e8-b67b-b8205561c3fe">rice bunny</a>”, pronounced as “mi tu”). In Nigeria, it’s <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=we-F0Gi0Lqs">#Sex4Grades</a>. In Turkey, it’s #<a href="https://ahvalnews.com/sexual-harrasment/dozens-turkish-womens-organisations-issue-statement-backing-latest-metoo-movement">UykularınızKaçsın</a> (“may you lose sleep”).</p> <p>In an inversion of the traditional narrative of the Global North leading the Global South in terms of feminist “progress”, Argentina’s “<a href="https://www.auswhn.com.au/blog/colour-green/">Green Wave</a>” has seen it decriminalise abortion, as has Colombia. Meanwhile, in 2022, the US Supreme Court <a href="https://theconversation.com/us-supreme-court-overturns-roe-v-wade-but-for-abortion-opponents-this-is-just-the-beginning-185768">overturned historic abortion legislation</a>.</p> <p>Whatever the nuances, the prevalence of such highly visible gender protests have led some feminists, like <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14680777.2020.1804431">Red Chidgey</a>, lecturer in Gender and Media at King’s College London, to declare that feminism has transformed from “a dirty word and publicly abandoned politics” to an ideology sporting “a new cool status”.</p> <h2>Where to now?</h2> <p>How do we know when to pronounce the next “wave”? (Spoiler alert: I have no answer.) Should we even continue to use the term “waves”?</p> <p>The “wave” framework was first used to demonstrate feminist continuity and solidarity. However, whether interpreted as disconnected chunks of feminist activity or connected periods of feminist activity and inactivity, represented by the crests and troughs of waves, some believe it encourages binary thinking that produces <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14680777.2016.1190046">intergenerational antagonism</a>.</p> <p>Back in 1983, Australian writer and second-wave feminist Dale Spender, who died last year, <a href="https://www.historyworkshop.org.uk/feminism/radical-books-dale-spender-theres-always-been-a-womens-movement-this-century-1983/">confessed her fear</a> that if each generation of women did not know they had robust histories of struggle and achievement behind them, they would labour under the illusion they’d have to develop feminism anew. Surely, this would be an overwhelming prospect.</p> <p>What does this mean for “waves” in 2024 and beyond?</p> <p>To build vigorous varieties of feminism going forward, we might reframe the “waves”. We need to let emerging generations of feminists know they are not living in an isolated moment, with the onerous job of starting afresh. Rather, they have the momentum created by generations upon generations of women to build on.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/224153/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/sharon-crozier-de-rosa-122804"><em>Sharon Crozier-De Rosa</em></a><em>, Professor, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-wollongong-711">University of Wollongong</a></em></p> <p><em>Image </em><em>credits: Getty Images </em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/what-are-the-four-waves-of-feminism-and-what-comes-next-224153">original article</a>.</em></p>

Caring

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Shannen Doherty shares "miracle" amid stage four cancer battle

<p>Shannen Doherty has shared a promising update as she continues to <a href="https://www.oversixty.com.au/health/caring/my-fear-is-obvious-shannen-doherty-s-tearful-health-update" target="_blank" rel="noopener">battle stage four breast cancer</a>. </p> <p>The <em>90210</em> star shared the positive update during the latest episode of her <em>Let’s Be Clear</em> podcast, after months of heartbreaking updates and her <a href="https://www.oversixty.com.au/health/caring/betrayed-shannen-doherty-opens-up-on-tough-divorce-amid-cancer-battle" target="_blank" rel="noopener">tough divorce</a> from her husband of 14 years, Kurt Iswarienk.</p> <p>“I’m on a new cancer infusion and after four treatments, we didn’t really see a difference and everybody wanted me to switch,” she said during a conversation with her doctor. </p> <p>“I just kinda was like, ‘we’re going to keep going with this and see.’”</p> <p>After multiple rounds of treatment, she began to see an unexpected positive development. </p> <p>“After the sixth or seventh treatment, we really saw it breaking down the blood-brain barrier," she said.</p> <p>"Do I call that a miracle? Yeah. For me, that happens to be a miracle right now. That I sort of rolled the dice and said, ‘let’s keep going.’”</p> <p>“That it’s actually breaking down that blood-brain barrier is actually a miracle of that drug, a miracle of maybe God intervening and being like, ‘I’m gonna give her a break,’” she added. </p> <p> “Sometimes you’re looking for miracles in all the wrong places and they’re right in front of your face.”</p> <p>The star was first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2015, and has been open about her ongoing battle, from her 2017 remission to her 2020 stage 4 diagnosis, which caused the cancer to spread to spread to her bones and brain. </p> <p>In January 2023 the former <em>Charmed</em> star underwent surgery to remove a brain tumour. </p> <p><em>Image: Getty</em></p>

Caring

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Meryl Streep hits the red carpet with her four children

<p>Meryl Streep has made a rare red carpet appearance with all four of her grown up children. </p> <p>The Hollywood legend was dressed in a chic black dress, exuding endless class at the annual Academy Museum Gala in Los Angeles on Sunday night. </p> <p>The event serves as the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures’ marquee annual fundraiser, raising vital funds to support museum exhibitions, education initiatives and public programming, while also quickly become one of Hollywood’s starriest nights.</p> <p>As Meryl graced the red carpet, she was joined by her four children who she shares with estranged husband Don Gummer. </p> <p>Streep was joined by her son Henry Wolfe and his wife Tamryn Storm Hawker, her daughter Grace Gummer and her husband Mark Ronson, and her other two daughters Mamie Gummer and Louisa Jacobson. </p> <p>Her children were in attendance to celebrate their mother, who was being honoured with the Icon Award during the ceremony. </p> <p>Streep's estranged husband Don was not present at the event, as the pair announced their <a href="https://oversixty.com.au/lifestyle/relationships/meryl-streep-s-shocking-relationship-news" target="_blank" rel="noopener">separation</a> in October.</p> <p>“Don Gummer and Meryl Streep have been separated for more than six years, and while they will always care for each other, they have chosen lives apart,” the Golden Globe winner’s spokesman told <em>Page Six</em> at the time.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p>

Family & Pets

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Supernatural star has six heart attacks and dies four times

<p><em>Supernatural </em>star Mark Sheppard recently shared a harrowing experience that left fans and well-wishers in disbelief.</p> <p>The 59-year-old actor disclosed that he had faced six massive heart attacks over the weekend, defying the odds by surviving – despite dying and being revived four times during the ordeal.</p> <p>Sheppard recounted the dramatic incident in an Instagram post from his hospital bed, detailing how he collapsed in his kitchen at home. Urgently rushed to the hospital, medical professionals discovered a "100 per cent blockage" in his left anterior descending artery (LAD), a vital blood vessel supplying the front of the left side of the heart, according to John Hopkins Medicine.</p> <p>The actor expressed profound gratitude to his wife, the Los Angeles Fire Department at Mulholland, and the dedicated staff at Providence California St Joseph's, saying that without their prompt intervention, his chances of survival would have been "virtually nil".</p> <p>Despite the severity of the situation, Sheppard's resilience shone through. In his Instagram post, he shared the astonishing news of being resuscitated four times after experiencing the six massive cardiac events. The actor, best known for his role as the demon and King of Hell Crowley in <em>Supernatural</em>, acknowledged the miracle of his survival and thanked the medical professionals who played a crucial role in his recovery.</p> <blockquote class="instagram-media" style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/C0XZqCtSYeO/?utm_source=ig_embed&utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="14"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"> </div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <div style="padding: 12.5% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; margin-bottom: 14px; align-items: center;"> <div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(0px) translateY(7px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; height: 12.5px; transform: rotate(-45deg) translateX(3px) translateY(1px); width: 12.5px; flex-grow: 0; margin-right: 14px; margin-left: 2px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(9px) translateY(-18px);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 8px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 20px; width: 20px;"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 2px solid transparent; border-left: 6px solid #f4f4f4; border-bottom: 2px solid transparent; transform: translateX(16px) translateY(-4px) rotate(30deg);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: auto;"> <div style="width: 0px; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-right: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(16px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; flex-grow: 0; height: 12px; width: 16px; transform: translateY(-4px);"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-left: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(-4px) translateX(8px);"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center; margin-bottom: 24px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 224px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 144px;"> </div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/C0XZqCtSYeO/?utm_source=ig_embed&utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A post shared by Mark Sheppard (@realmarksheppard)</a></p> </div> </blockquote> <p>In the midst of his health crisis, Sheppard took a moment to express his gratitude for the support and care he received. His fans, too, flooded the comment section with well-wishes and messages of relief. One fan, acknowledging the actor's miraculous survival, commented, "All the best to you and your family!" Another, an experienced emergency room nurse, exclaimed, "As a 20-year ER nurse, you are a miracle!"</p> <p>Sheppard wrapped up his post on a positive note, announcing that he is on the mend, soon to be heading home, and "feeling great".</p> <p><em>Images: Instagram</em></p>

Caring

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Channel 10 newsreader admits to driving while four times over the legal limit

<p>Natasha Exelby, a well-known journalist and former Channel 10 newsreader, recently found herself in the spotlight for an entirely different reason than her on-air mishap in 2017.</p> <p>On a fateful day last June, she was involved in a drink driving incident in Toorak, Melbourne. This incident marked a low point in her life, but it also sheds light on the profound impact of mental health struggles and the road to recovery.</p> <p>Exelby, 34, appeared before the Melbourne Magistrates' Court and made a candid admission: she had driven while suspended and under the influence of alcohol, registering a blood alcohol concentration of .220, over four times the legal limit. She narrowly escaped conviction but didn't escape the consequences of her actions.</p> <p>In her statement to the <a href="https://www.heraldsun.com.au/truecrimeaustralia/police-courts-victoria/journalist-natasha-exelby-busted-drink-driving-after-crashing-into-parked-car-while-four-times-over-legal-limit/news-story/f710cdbc849622fb4e298b61c049c1f3" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Herald Sun</a>, Exelby took full responsibility for her actions, citing her ongoing battle with major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. She courageously acknowledged her struggles and the role they played in her regrettable choices that day.</p> <p>"It's no secret that I've suffered from major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder for many years," she said. "At the time of the incident, I was going through a very dark period with multiple medication changes. Never in my life did I think I would be capable of what happened but regardless of my mental health, my actions were shocking beyond words and I take full responsibility."</p> <p>Her journey towards this dark moment was marked by openness about her mental health. In September 2022, she appeared on Studio 10, where she revealed the depths of her internal battles. She discussed experiencing episodes of inexplicable crying, a common symptom of depression. This revelation was crucial in the context of R U OK? Day, emphasizing the importance of checking on the well-being of those around us.</p> <p>Natasha's admission serves as a stark reminder that mental health issues are every bit as valid as physical ailments. She compared her experience with depression to "drowning" and disclosed that she had been on medication and in therapy for major depression for years. Her message is clear: it's okay to seek help when battling these internal demons, and recovery is possible, even if it's a long and winding road.</p> <p>Exelby's struggle with mental health is by no means a recent development. She revealed that she had been dealing with major depression since the age of 15, highlighting the enduring nature of the condition. Her story is an inspiration for others who are going through similar challenges, proving that there is light at the end of the tunnel, even when it feels like the journey will never end.</p> <p>Before her battle with depression and her recent legal troubles, Exelby made headlines in 2017 for an <a href="https://www.news.com.au/entertainment/tv/flashback/one-year-later-why-natasha-exelby-isnt-haunted-by-abc-blooper/news-story/24398919d522c0029e6d7963f165897d" target="_blank" rel="noopener">on-air gaffe</a> during an ABC news broadcast. Despite the initial shock, she took the incident in stride, even finding humour in it and acknowledging the role that social media and celebrities like Russell Crowe played in making the video go viral. It was a moment of resilience and self-awareness that foreshadowed her future ability to face her own mental health struggles.</p> <p>Exelby's open honesty, her admission of her mistakes and her ongoing battle with mental health challenges is a reminder that anyone can face difficulties, regardless of their public persona. By sharing her experiences, Exelby is contributing to the ongoing conversation about mental health, helping to break down the stigma that often surrounds it.</p> <p><em>Images: Instagram</em></p>

Legal

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Four myths about the financial side of divorce

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/emma-hitchings-388514">Emma Hitchings</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-bristol-1211">University of Bristol</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/gillian-douglas-1428314">Gillian Douglas</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/kings-college-london-1196">King's College London</a></em></p> <p>It’s no wonder many people think divorce involves going to court, huge legal fees and decades of spousal payments, considering these are the cases that dominate our headlines. However, the kinds of divorce cases reported in the news involve the very rich, and are far removed from the reality for most couples.</p> <p>The Law Commission of England and Wales, the body responsible for law reform, <a href="https://www.lawcom.gov.uk/project/financial-remedies-on-divorce/">recently announced a review</a> of the law of finances on divorce, with a scoping report due in September 2024. Review of this law is much needed, given the legislation governing how couples in England and Wales sort out their financial affairs upon marriage breakdown mainly dates back to the 1970s (the <a href="https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1973/18">Matrimonial Causes Act 1973</a>).</p> <p>The problem is that key politicians <a href="https://hansard.parliament.uk/lords/2023-03-08/debates/3AB3D708-24E5-4FF2-8481-05EFA27E2593/DivorceFinancialProvision">who have been calling for change</a> still rely on the issues raised in these <a href="https://hansard.parliament.uk/lords/2018-05-11/debates/89A33706-7DCD-4FA0-AE0D-B06E11FAF264/Divorce(FinancialProvision)Bill(HL)">exceptional, “big money” divorce cases</a>.</p> <p>We need to correct the misleading narrative about divorce if reform is to address the needs of the 110,000 couples <a href="https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/family-court-statistics-quarterly-july-to-september-2022">who get divorced in England and Wales each year</a>. Although there is limited research about this issue, we do know enough to challenge the following myths.</p> <h2>1. Spouses are often forced to fund costly legal battles</h2> <p>Family courts grant divorces and the fee is currently £593. However, it is not mandatory for a divorcing couple to get an additional order regarding their finances, and there is no need for expensive court hearings.</p> <p>In fact, <a href="https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/family-court-statistics-quarterly-july-to-september-2022">fewer than 40%</a> of those divorcing each year do so. While there is no authoritative data on average legal costs incurred in these cases, it seems that, for many couples, the costs of sorting out their financial arrangements need not be high because the courts are not involved.</p> <p>And even those couples who do use the courts for their financial matters overwhelmingly settle rather than fight their case, which limits their legal costs. Only <a href="https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/family-court-statistics-quarterly-july-to-september-2022">13% of financial orders</a> made in a divorce are actually decided by a judge after contested litigation. The rest are consent orders: orders finalised by the judge on terms that have already been agreed by the divorcing couple.</p> <h2>2. Everything is split 50/50</h2> <p>The law does not lay down a principle of equal sharing of the marital assets on divorce. However, the courts <a href="https://www.lawteacher.net/cases/miller-v-miller-mcfarlane-v-mcfarlane.php">do accept this is a desirable goal</a> if this can be done while meeting both parties’ needs – and those of their children.</p> <p>Research suggests that, rather than rigidly applying a 50/50 split, couples focus on their needs first and <a href="https://research-information.bris.ac.uk/en/publications/financial-remedies-on-divorce-the-need-for-evidence-based-reform">particularly those of their children</a>. This can result in an unequal split of the value of the main asset most couples have – the former marital home.</p> <h2>3. Men have to pay lifelong maintenance</h2> <p>Some news media object to the current law as they claim it allows an ex-wife to be supported <a href="https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5965629/Surveyor-marriage-ended-16-years-ago-WINS-Supreme-Court-battle.html">for the rest of her life</a> by her former husband (or vice versa). The argument is that this casts ex-wives as dependants who cannot look after themselves, and prevents husbands from moving on after their divorce.</p> <p>In reality, lifelong maintenance is rare, and even limited ongoing financial support is uncommon. The most recent data found that only 16% of court orders involved any kind of ongoing spousal support – of which, two-thirds were for a fixed term. Nearly all such orders involved <a href="http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/sites/default/files/files/briefing%20paper%20Jun%202018%20FINAL.pdf">dependant children</a>, with the order terminating when the youngest child reaches a certain age or stage of education.</p> <h2>4. London is the divorce capital of the world</h2> <p>Some news media <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/shortcuts/2015/feb/24/divorce-rich-husband-london-english-law">report</a> that the courts’ endorsement of the principle of equal sharing has led to some wives, married to oligarchs, sheikhs and tycoons, seeking divorce through an English court due to its “generous” treatment of them. For example in 2021, a High Court judge ordered Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum, the emir of Dubai, to pay a <a href="https://www.businessinsider.com/why-london-divorce-capital-world-for-mega-rich-2019-7?r=US&amp;IR=T">£554 million divorce settlement</a> to his former wife, Princess Haya.</p> <p>By their nature, these cases are atypical – that’s why they make headlines. But why should the fact that English law takes spousal equality seriously be a matter for regret? The 1970s legislation aimed to ensure the non-financial contributions of spouses, such as home-making and caring, should be recognised. Judges have been clear <a href="https://uk.practicallaw.thomsonreuters.com/3-503-7596?transitionType=Default&amp;contextData=(sc.Default)&amp;firstPage=true">it is discriminatory to assume</a> the breadwinner spouse is making a greater contribution to the relationship and should keep a larger part of the wealth than the other who takes on the role of carer. Surely this is an enlightened position.</p> <p>That doesn’t mean we shouldn’t update the law, though. Working patterns have changed but women still earn, on average, <a href="https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/earningsandworkinghours/bulletins/genderpaygapintheuk/2022#:%7E:text=Image%20.csv%20.xls-,The%20gender%20pay%20gap%20has%20been%20declining%20slowly%20over%20time,up%20from%207.7%25%20in%202021.">less than men</a>. They are still more likely to assume the bulk of <a href="https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/employmentandemployeetypes/articles/familiesandthelabourmarketengland/2021">child care</a>, <a href="https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/employmentandemployeetypes/articles/familiesandthelabourmarketengland/2021">work part-time </a>, and, in consequence, have <a href="https://adviser.scottishwidows.co.uk/assets/literature/docs/women-retirement-report-2022-press-release.pdf">smaller pensions compared with men</a>.</p> <p>The result is that, far from being treated generously, women still come out of divorce <a href="https://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/bitstream/handle/2123/26207/Fisher_2018_AJFL_Final.pdf?sequence=1">financially worse off than men</a>.</p> <p>But there is still so much we don’t know about how divorced couples divide their assets. Since the norm is for couples to stay out of the courts, there is no official record of how the majority of the divorcing population arranges their finances. That’s why <a href="https://research-information.bris.ac.uk/en/persons/emma-hitchings">one of us</a> (Emma) is leading the Fair Shares Study, expected to publish in autumn 2023. This will provide the <a href="https://www.bristol.ac.uk/law/fair-shares-project/">first nationally representative picture</a> of couples’ finances on divorce.</p> <p>We need a law that meets the needs of all divorcing couples rather than the few wealthy exceptions, and a major corrective to the myths that abound in this area of family law.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/202975/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/emma-hitchings-388514">Emma Hitchings</a>, Professor of Family Law, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-bristol-1211">University of Bristol</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/gillian-douglas-1428314">Gillian Douglas</a>, Professor Emerita of Law, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/kings-college-london-1196">King's College London</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/four-myths-about-the-financial-side-of-divorce-202975">original article</a>.</em></p>

Money & Banking

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"Miracles do exist": Astonishing return of missing teen after four years

<p>An American teenager has been found after she went missing four years ago, when she walked into a police station and asked to be taken off the missing children list. </p> <p>Alicia Navarro, who is now 18, walked into a police station in a small town in Montana, close to the Canadian border, and identified herself as the teenager who was reported missing in September 2019. </p> <p>“Alicia Navarro has been located,” Glendale public safety communications manager Jose Santiago said during a press conference.</p> <p>“She is by all accounts, safe, she is by all accounts healthy and she is by all accounts happy.”</p> <p>The teenager reportedly left her home willingly four years ago when she was 14-years-old, leaving her parents a note when she disappeared from her house overnight on September 15th 2019. </p> <p>Alicia, who has been described as a high-functioning autistic person, left a handwritten note for her parents that read, “I ran away. I will be back. I swear. I’m sorry,” before she slipped out of the house while they slept. </p> <p>Her parents then didn't hear from her for four years, until they were contacted by the Glendale Police Department to let them know their child had been found. </p> <p>Alicia had an emotional reunion with her mum, who never stopped looking for her, as she was very apologetic over the pain her mother went through not knowing where she was for the past four years or even if she was still alive. </p> <p>Her mom, Jessica Nuñez, called the discovery of her daughter four years after her disappearance a miracle in a video she posted to Facebook.</p> <p>“For everyone who has missing loved ones, I want you to use this case as an example,” she said. “Miracles do exist. Never lose hope and always fight.”</p> <p>Nuñez said she doesn’t have details on her daughter’s disappearance but said “the important thing is that she is alive.”</p> <p>Glendale police are now investigating how the teenager got to Montana, and how she has survived over the last four years by herself. </p> <p>Alicia told police that no one has harmed her and appeared to be healthy, while the girl currently remains in Montana and is able to come and go as she pleases and has asked for privacy so she can move on with her life. </p> <p>“We can only imagine what she’s going through, mentally, emotionally, as well as her family, and as much as we’d like to say this is the end, this is probably only the beginning of where this investigation will go,” Glendale PD Lt. Scott Waite said.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Fox 10</em></p> <div class="media image portrait" style="caret-color: #000000; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: auto; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration: none; box-sizing: inherit; display: flex; flex-direction: column; align-items: center; width: 338.492645px; float: right; margin-left: 14.099264px; margin-bottom: 24px; max-width: 100%;"> </div>

Mind

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Gen X dad’s odd punishment for four-year-old son sparks debate

<p dir="ltr">A self-proclaimed Gen X dad has sparked a furious debate after a video clip of him punishing his four-year-old son went viral on TikTok.</p> <p dir="ltr">Wisconsin-based dad Derek Longstreth said he had no other choice but to make his young son, Truman, heave massive jugs of water across the yard because he hit his mum.</p> <p dir="ltr">“All right little man, let's go, you've got all these jugs to carry,” he told his son, as he showed five water jugs.</p> <p dir="ltr">“He hit his mom today, so, spanking is out of the question because you liberals made it so we can’t spank our children any more,” he explained.</p> <p dir="ltr">The father-of-one recorded his son struggling to carry the water jugs, but offered him words of encouragement as the boy tried to carry it across the yard.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Let's go, young man. I love you just so you know, but you're not going to hit your mom,” he said. “You can do it. I love you son but we don't hit women in this family.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Longstreth then explained why he chose to punish his son this way, and said that spanking your child is not allowed in Wisconsin.</p> <p dir="ltr">“He's four. We're not allowed to spank in the state of Wisconsin because some liberals are saying there are better ways.”</p> <p dir="ltr">“'Well liberals, what's the better way?”</p> <div><iframe title="tiktok embed" src="https://cdn.embedly.com/widgets/media.html?src=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.tiktok.com%2Fembed%2Fv2%2F7256440921728863530&amp;display_name=tiktok&amp;url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.tiktok.com%2F%40hamburgerjones23%2Fvideo%2F7256440921728863530&amp;image=https%3A%2F%2Fp19-sign.tiktokcdn-us.com%2Fobj%2Ftos-useast5-p-0068-tx%2Fc29492b9251f41139161e469b64b4d0e%3Fx-expires%3D1689789600%26x-signature%3DRnuVqM3A6bo1miOskT3JdYiBlWA%253D&amp;key=5b465a7e134d4f09b4e6901220de11f0&amp;type=text%2Fhtml&amp;schema=tiktok" width="340" height="700" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen"></iframe></div> <p> </p> <p dir="ltr">After the father complained about the liberals, he continued to try and teach Truman a lesson, despite the child complaining that he “can’t do it” multiple times throughout the video.</p> <p dir="ltr">At the end of the clip, Longstreth asks his son: “Are you going to hit your mom again?”</p> <p dir="ltr">“No,” the four-year-old responded.</p> <p dir="ltr">Longstreth also made his son apologise for hitting his mum.</p> <p dir="ltr">The nine-minute clip has racked up over 1.9 million views, while many applauded the father for his “gentle” ways of parenting and disciplining his son, others slammed him for “abuse”.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Big respect to this dad. He gave the kid a hard job with encouragement and reassurance that he loves him as well as why the kid had to do it,” wrote one person.</p> <p dir="ltr">“This is honestly probably the best and most effective way to discipline your child. Every moment they do this they are thinking about what they did,” commented another.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Good dad, raising his son right, teaching him to never lay his hands on any women especially his momma. Very good,” agreed a third.</p> <p dir="ltr">“This is like so gentle yet so disciplining in all the good ways,” wrote a fourth.</p> <p dir="ltr">However, other viewers disagreed with the father’s method.</p> <p dir="ltr">“This is abuse.... I said what I said. I'm sorry he hit his mom though, talking it out is fine. He's too little for this,” commented one person.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Lol. When people ask what the next traumas will be, it’ll be every moment being a phone in their face. Did you need to post this? Pathetic,” wrote another.</p> <p dir="ltr">“You don't want him to associate work as punishment. how about no tv, no sweets, something that is usually a privilege. work is something that is good,” added another user.</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Images: TikTok</em></p>

Family & Pets

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How traditional Indigenous education helped four lost children survive 40 days in the Amazon jungle

<p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/eliran-arazi-1447346">Eliran Arazi</a>, <em><a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/hebrew-university-of-jerusalem-855">Hebrew University of Jerusalem</a></em></p> <p>The discovery and rescue of <a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/americas/four-missing-colombian-children-found-alive-jungle-sources-2023-06-10/">four young Indigenous children</a>, 40 days after the aircraft they were travelling in crashed in the remote Colombian rainforest, was hailed in the international press as a “<a href="https://www.lemonde.fr/en/international/article/2023/06/11/miracle-in-the-jungle-colombia-celebrates-rescue-of-children-lost-in-amazon-rainforest_6030840_4.html">miracle in the jungle</a>”. But as an anthropologist who has spent more than a year living among the Andoque people in the region, <a href="https://www.academia.edu/100474974/Amazonian_visions_of_Visi%C3%B3n_Amazon%C3%ADa_Indigenous_Peoples_perspectives_on_a_forest_conservation_and_climate_programme_in_the_Colombian_Amazon">conducting ethnographic fieldwork</a>, I cannot simply label this as a miraculous event.</p> <p>At least, not a miracle in the conventional sense of the word. Rather, the survival and discovery of these children can be attributed to the profound knowledge of the intricate forest and the adaptive skills passed down through generations by Indigenous people.</p> <p>During the search for the children, I was in contact with Raquel Andoque, an elder <em>maloquera</em> (owner of a ceremonial longhouse), the sister of the children’s great-grandmother. She repeatedly expressed her unwavering belief the children would be found alive, citing the autonomy, astuteness and physical resilience of children in the region.</p> <p>Even before starting elementary school, children in this area accompany their parents and elder relatives in various activities such as gardening, fishing, navigating rivers, hunting and gathering honey and wild fruits. In this way the children acquire practical skills and knowledge, such as those demonstrated by Lesly, Soleiny, Tien and Cristin during their 40-day ordeal.</p> <p>Indigenous children typically learn from an early age how to open paths through dense vegetation, how to tell edible from non-edible fruits. They know how to find potable water, build rain shelters and set animal traps. They can identify animal footprints and scents – and avoid predators such as jaguars and snakes lurking in the woods.</p> <p>Amazonian children typically lack access to the sort of commercialised toys and games that children in the cities grow up with. So they become adept tree climbers and engage in play that teaches them about adult tools made from natural materials, such as oars or axes. This nurtures their understanding of physical activities and helps them learn which plants serve specific purposes.</p> <figure class="align-center "><img src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/532019/original/file-20230614-31-hrdd5z.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" sizes="(min-width: 1466px) 754px, (max-width: 599px) 100vw, (min-width: 600px) 600px, 237px" srcset="https://images.theconversation.com/files/532019/original/file-20230614-31-hrdd5z.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=450&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 600w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532019/original/file-20230614-31-hrdd5z.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=450&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1200w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532019/original/file-20230614-31-hrdd5z.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=450&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 1800w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532019/original/file-20230614-31-hrdd5z.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=566&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 754w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532019/original/file-20230614-31-hrdd5z.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=566&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1508w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532019/original/file-20230614-31-hrdd5z.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=566&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 2262w" alt="A youg girl holding up an insect as her family works alongside" /><figcaption><span class="caption">A local Indigenous girl on an excursion to gather edible larvae.</span> <span class="attribution"><span class="source">Image courtesy of Eliran Arazi</span>, <span class="license">Author provided</span></span></figcaption></figure> <p>Activities that most western children would be shielded from – handling, skinning and butchering game animals, for example – provide invaluable zoology lessons and arguably foster emotional resilience.</p> <h2>Survival skills</h2> <p>When they accompany their parents and relatives on excursions in the jungle, Indigenous children learn how to navigate a forest’s dense vegetation by following the location of the sun in the sky.</p> <figure class="align-left zoomable"><a href="https://images.theconversation.com/files/532012/original/file-20230614-29-ii5s0u.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=1000&amp;fit=clip"><img src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/532012/original/file-20230614-29-ii5s0u.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=237&amp;fit=clip" sizes="(min-width: 1466px) 754px, (max-width: 599px) 100vw, (min-width: 600px) 600px, 237px" srcset="https://images.theconversation.com/files/532012/original/file-20230614-29-ii5s0u.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=551&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 600w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532012/original/file-20230614-29-ii5s0u.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=551&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1200w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532012/original/file-20230614-29-ii5s0u.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=551&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 1800w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532012/original/file-20230614-29-ii5s0u.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=692&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 754w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532012/original/file-20230614-29-ii5s0u.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=692&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1508w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532012/original/file-20230614-29-ii5s0u.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=692&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 2262w" alt="Map of the Middle Caqueta region of Colombia." /></a><figcaption><span class="caption">Map showing where in Colombia the four lost children are from.</span> <span class="attribution"><span class="source">Gadiel Levi</span>, <span class="license">Author provided</span></span></figcaption></figure> <p>Since the large rivers in most parts of the Amazon flow in a direction opposite to that of the sun, people can orient themselves towards those main rivers.</p> <p>The trail of footprints and objects left by the four children revealed their general progression towards the Apaporis River, where they may have hoped to be spotted.</p> <p>The children would also have learned from their parents and elders about edible plans and flowers – where they can be found. And also the interrelationship between plants, so that where a certain tree is, you can find mushrooms, or small animals that can be trapped and eaten.</p> <h2>Stories, songs and myths</h2> <p>Knowledge embedded in mythic stories passed down by parents and grandparents is another invaluable resource for navigating the forest. These stories depict animals as fully sentient beings, engaging in seduction, mischief, providing sustenance, or even saving each other’s lives.</p> <p>While these episodes may seem incomprehensible to non-Indigenous audiences, they actually encapsulate the intricate interrelations among the forest’s countless non-human inhabitants. Indigenous knowledge focuses on the interrelationships between humans, plants and animals and how they can come together to preserve the environment and prevent irreversible ecological harm.</p> <p>This sophisticated knowledge has been developed over millennia during which Indigenous people not only adapted to their forest territories but actively shaped them. It is deeply ingrained knowledge that local indigenous people are taught from early childhood so that it becomes second nature to them.</p> <p>It has become part of the culture of cultivating and harvesting crops, something infants and children are introduced to, as well as knowledge of all sort of different food sources and types of bush meat.</p> <h2>Looking after each other</h2> <p>One of the aspects of this “miraculous” story that people in the west have marvelled over is how, after the death of the children’s mother, the 13-year-old Lesly managed to take care of her younger siblings, including Cristin, who was only 11 months old at the time the aircraft went down.</p> <figure class="align-center "><img src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/532007/original/file-20230614-19-7q92j0.jpeg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" sizes="(min-width: 1466px) 754px, (max-width: 599px) 100vw, (min-width: 600px) 600px, 237px" srcset="https://images.theconversation.com/files/532007/original/file-20230614-19-7q92j0.jpeg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=450&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 600w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532007/original/file-20230614-19-7q92j0.jpeg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=450&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1200w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532007/original/file-20230614-19-7q92j0.jpeg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=450&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 1800w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532007/original/file-20230614-19-7q92j0.jpeg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=566&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 754w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532007/original/file-20230614-19-7q92j0.jpeg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=566&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1508w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/532007/original/file-20230614-19-7q92j0.jpeg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=566&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 2262w" alt="Three Indigenous people in western clothes stood under trees in front of a wide building." /><figcaption><span class="caption">Iris Andoque Macuna with her brother Nestor Andoque and brother-in-law Faustino Fiagama after the two men returned from the search team.</span> <span class="attribution"><span class="source">Iris Andoque Macuna.</span>, <span class="license">Author provided</span></span></figcaption></figure> <p>But in Indigenous families, elder sisters are expected to act as surrogate mothers to their younger relatives from an early age. Iris Andoke Macuna, a distant relative of the family, told me:</p> <blockquote> <p>To some whites [non-Indigenous people], it seems like a bad thing that we take our children to work in the garden, and that we let girls carry their brothers and take care of them. But for us, it’s a good thing, our children are independent, this is why Lesly could take care of her brothers during all this time. It toughened her, and she learned what her brothers need.</p> </blockquote> <h2>The spiritual side</h2> <p>For 40 days and nights, while the four children were lost, elders and shamans performed rituals based on traditional beliefs that involve human relationships with entities known as <em>dueños</em> (owners) in Spanish and by various names in native languages (such as <em>i'bo ño̰e</em>, meaning “persons of there” in Andoque).</p> <p>These owners are believed to be the protective spirits of the plants and animals that live in the forests. Children are introduced to these powerful owners in name-giving ceremonies, which ensure that these spirits recognise and acknowledge relationship to the territory and their entitlement to prosper on it.</p> <figure class="align-center "><img src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/531997/original/file-20230614-15389-7c6oly.JPG?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" sizes="(min-width: 1466px) 754px, (max-width: 599px) 100vw, (min-width: 600px) 600px, 237px" srcset="https://images.theconversation.com/files/531997/original/file-20230614-15389-7c6oly.JPG?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=400&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 600w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/531997/original/file-20230614-15389-7c6oly.JPG?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=400&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1200w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/531997/original/file-20230614-15389-7c6oly.JPG?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=600&amp;h=400&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 1800w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/531997/original/file-20230614-15389-7c6oly.JPG?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=503&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=1 754w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/531997/original/file-20230614-15389-7c6oly.JPG?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=30&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=503&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=2 1508w, https://images.theconversation.com/files/531997/original/file-20230614-15389-7c6oly.JPG?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=15&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;h=503&amp;fit=crop&amp;dpr=3 2262w" alt="Woman in pink t-shirt sat on chair inside." /><figcaption><span class="caption">Raquel Andoke, a relative of the missing children and friend of the author.</span> <span class="attribution"><span class="source">Image courtesy of Eliran Arazi</span>, <span class="license">Author provided</span></span></figcaption></figure> <p>During the search for the missing children, elders conducted dialogues and negotiations with these entities in their ceremonial houses (<em>malocas</em>) throughout the <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Middle-and-Lower-Caqueta-River-region-State-of-Amazonas-Colombia-Map-from_fig1_255580310">Middle Caquetá</a> and in other Indigenous communities that consider the crash site part of their ancestral territory. Raquel explained to me:</p> <blockquote> <p>The shamans communicate with the sacred sites. They offer coca and tobacco to the spirits and say: “Take this and give me my grandchildren back. They are mine, not yours.”</p> </blockquote> <p>These beliefs and practices hold significant meaning for my friends in the Middle Caquetá, who firmly attribute the children’s survival to these spiritual processes rather than the technological means employed by the Colombian army rescue teams.</p> <p>It may be challenging for non-Indigenous people to embrace these traditional ideas. But these beliefs would have instilled in the children the faith and emotional fortitude crucial for persevering in the struggle for survival. And it would have encouraged the Indigenous people searching for them not to give up hope.</p> <p>The children knew that their fate did not lie in dying in the forest, and that their grandparents and shamans would move heaven and earth to bring them back home alive.</p> <p>Regrettably, this traditional knowledge that has enabled Indigenous people to not only survive but thrive in the Amazon for millennia is under threat. Increasing land encroachment for agribusiness, mining, and illicit activities as well as state neglect and interventions without Indigenous consent have left these peoples vulnerable.</p> <p>It is jeopardising the very foundations of life where this knowledge is embedded, the territories that serve as its bedrock, and the people themselves who preserve, develop, and transmit this knowledge.</p> <p>Preserving this invaluable knowledge and the skills that bring miracles to life is imperative. We must not allow them to wither away.<img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/207762/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /></p> <p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/eliran-arazi-1447346">Eliran Arazi</a>, PhD researcher in Anthropology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (Paris)., <em><a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/hebrew-university-of-jerusalem-855">Hebrew University of Jerusalem</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/how-traditional-indigenous-education-helped-four-lost-children-survive-40-days-in-the-amazon-jungle-207762">original article</a>.</em></p> <p><em>Images: Getty</em></p>

Caring

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“That name goes back four generations”: Paul Walker’s brother makes a touching tribute

<p>Almost a decade after the world lost <em>Fast & Furious </em>star Paul Walker, his younger brother Cody Walker has paid heartfelt tribute with the birth of his third child. </p> <p>Cody and his wife, Felicia, welcomed their son on April 30, with <em>People </em>magazine reporting that he weighed in at 7lbs 5oz. Felicia took to Instagram on May 2 to make an announcement, too, declaring that they’d had a boy, and writing “welcome to the clan, Barrett”.</p> <p>Many took this as confirmation of his name, and rushed to congratulate the family on their new addition. Felicia had shared a picture of the newborn in the arms of his big brother, Colt, with the announcement, and fans were delighted to note that he was the image of a proud older sibling, beaming from ear to ear. </p> <p>However,<em> People</em> magazine have now revealed that there was more to the story, and that the newborn Walker’s name is even closer to his father’s heart than anyone had anticipated. </p> <p>It was a day after his birth that Cody and Felicia reached their decision, declaring their son’s name to be Paul Barrett Walker - naming him after Cody’s late brother. </p> <p>"This November will mark 10 years since we lost my brother, Paul,” Cody told the publication, “and I just felt now was the appropriate time.”</p> <p>He went on to share that he and their other brother - Caleb - were “both done having children”, and that the name held special meaning to all of them. </p> <p>“My brother, Paul, was Paul William Walker IV and that name goes back four generations,” he explained. "Within the family, he went by ‘little Paul’ or ‘Paul 4,’ even though he quickly outgrew our father in height. </p> <p>“It was important to me to have that name carry on.”</p> <p>It isn’t the only move Cody has taken towards honouring his brother, having teamed up with Tyrese Gibson and Chris Lee to bright FuelFest to life - an automotive and motorsports festival showcasing car culture, with a portion of profits going towards Paul’s nonprofit Reach Out WorldWide, something that Cody views “as a part of Paul that he left behind.”</p> <p>And in an echo of his message regarding his new son’s name, he noted that “it’s important to so many to see that part of his legacy live on.”</p> <p>And Paul’s daughter, Meadow, has made her own moves towards furthering her father’s legacy, with a cameo appearance in <em>Fast X</em> - the tenth instalment in the <em>Fast & Furious</em> franchise. </p> <p>“For me, this is super exciting,” she said of her involvement, “and he would be amazed that this is happening.”</p> <p><em>Images: Instagram, Getty</em></p>

Family & Pets

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Four ways to mix up your fitness routine

<p>More Aussies in their 60s are choosing to turn up the heat at the gym than the bowling green. Here's why.</p> <p>The image of retirees spending their time playing lawn bowls and pruning back the hydrangea stems as part of their winter garden maintenance have been replaced with over 60s pumping it out at the gym.</p> <p>A recent study by over 50s insurer Apia found that older Aussies were almost five times more likely to regularly attend a gym or fitness group than they are to play bowls down at the local RSL club.</p> <p>Apia’s David Skapinker says many people tend to think that the lifestyles of older Australians have not changed much since our grandparent’s generation, when in fact they’ve changed quite dramatically.</p> <p>“Three quarters of our over 50s say they regularly walk to keep physically active and 14 per cent attend a gym or fitness group once a week or more, while just three per cent play bowls,” he reveals.</p> <p>The survey found that Aussies between 65 and 69 are the most likely to attend a gym or fitness group, which may indicate more free time as people reach retirement. With that in mind, here’s a few activities and classes you can try at the gym to get the blood pumping.</p> <p><strong>Hit the weights</strong></p> <p>This area isn’t just for those younger men who like to show off their muscles in tank tops. It’s for you too. Strong muscles don’t just make it easier to open that tight jam jar, they’re an important part of your health and fitness at every age. Muscles keep your bones strong, which is especially important as you get older as they are a powerful remedy to frailty and potential falls. You don’t need to pick up big 20 kilogram weights.</p> <p>Grab the dumbbells, which come in a range of weights, and do simple exercises, like bringing your arms from your hips to your chest. If you’re unsure about certain exercises, ask one of the gym’s personal trainers to show you a couple of different moves. You’ll feel the difference in no time. It doesn’t take long to build muscle, so nurture it by working at it and eating right.</p> <p><strong>Do some laps</strong></p> <p>Swimming is a great low-impact activity that you can do at any age. While it works a number of muscles in your body, it has also been shown to improve mental fitness. The next time you’re at the gym, why not jump in the pool and do some laps. It’ll keep your heart rate up but will take some of the impact stress off your body, which is important for those with joint pain or discomfit.</p> <p>Swimming also builds endurance, muscle strength and cardiovascular fitness while helping you maintain a healthy weight, a healthy heart and lungs. Some gyms also offer group exercise classes in the swimming pool, which can offer a similar low-impact workout. Whether you like backstroke, breaststroke or freestyle, change up your gym routine by doing a session in the pool.</p> <p><strong>Get into your dancing groove</strong></p> <p>Have you tried a Zumba class? The Latin-inspired dance fitness classes are popular with Aussies because they combine exercise and fun. While it’s usually a high intensity routine that incorporates fast and slow rhythms to achieve a balance of cardio and muscle-toning benefits, there are classes tailored for beginners and older Aussies.</p> <p>Check with your gym to see if they offer these specialised classes, which will be a low impact, low intensity version but with all the benefits of being a total body workout. Swivel those hips and move those feet to a South American beat that’s full of fun.</p> <p><strong>Bring the mind and body together</strong></p> <p>Yoga continues to attract fans all over the world for good reason. With a focus on breathing and calming the mind in connection with physical postures, the discipline is great for relaxation and as a form of physical activity. You’ll find that after a week at the gym, your muscles may be sore and a yoga class at the end of the week can be the best way to iron out those kinks.</p> <p>There are a number of different styles of yoga, so choose one you feel comfortable with. A common yoga class will usually involve an introduction, including some breathing exercises, a physical warm up, yoga postures and movements, and the best part, a bit of relaxation or meditation to finish off the session.</p> <p><em>Images: Getty</em></p>

Body

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Four-year-old entrepreneur wins out against council complaints

<p dir="ltr">Four-year-old Leo Tyres is the proud owner of his very own fruit and vegetable stand, better known as Leo’s Little Shop, but his enterprise hasn’t come without its share of struggle. </p> <p dir="ltr">He first had to overcome a hurdle most small business owners know an awful lot about - a slow start. And from there, things escalated, when a complaint made to the local council against his stand almost shut down business for good. </p> <p dir="ltr">Leo operates his pop-up store, selling discounted fruit and vegetables with slight defects from outside his home in Gatton, Queensland. </p> <p dir="ltr">And as Lockyer Valley Mayor Tanya Milligan told<em> 9News</em>, the complaint had been about “a business that was operating in a residential area. </p> <p dir="ltr">“Like most councils, we are complaint-driven, we have an obligation to go and check it out.”</p> <p dir="ltr">“If it’s a permanent structure, it becomes a shop,” she explained, before noting that if that were the case then the young family would have had a lot of hoops to jump through. </p> <p dir="ltr">Luckily for little Leo - and the 2000 locals who got behind a petition to save his venture - Milligan was of the opinion that “it’s no different to me than the old-fashioned lemonade stall or garage sale.” </p> <p dir="ltr">And so, the stand remains open for business, with Leo at the helm. </p> <p dir="ltr">As for how his regulars feel about the outcome, Leo was happy to report that “they say ‘good on ya’.” </p> <p dir="ltr">Leo’s mother, Barbra Sanchez, is delighted with the result as well, and shared some of the benefits of his experience, noting that “he is learning several life skills from interacting with people, [and he’s] saving money.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Those people are, of course, his customers, but also his suppliers. Local business is important to the youngster, who sources his produce from local farmers who are unable to sell the fruit and vegetables due to the ‘imperfections’ in their appearance.</p> <p dir="ltr">While he started out with just a bag of limes and two pumpkins, Leo’s empire has grown from there, and he now has his very own trailer to help with the crucial work of sourcing, carrying, and selling his wares. </p> <p dir="ltr">He was more than eager to share this proud achievement, too, declaring that he can now “take 10 pumpkins in the trailer! 10 pumpkins.” </p> <p dir="ltr">And for anyone wondering just what the four year old might be doing with his hard-earned savings, Leo was happy to explain, telling <em>9News</em>’ Cam Inglis, “I just buy toys.” </p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Images: 9News</em></p>

Food & Wine

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Learn to think like a plant: four questions to think about if you want to keep your houseplants healthy

<p><em>You don’t drown by falling into the water; you drown by staying there (Edwin Louis Cole).</em></p> <p>I’d say most potted orchid deaths arise from drowned roots. Conversely, I’ve seen people desiccate cacti believing they don’t need water. True, I scarcely water mine for six months in the year, but in high summer I water them weekly. My potted orchids instead enjoy a good shower all year round. </p> <p>Houseplants all have their likes and dislikes. But once you know the rules of thumb, there are few homes in which you can’t grow a plant well.</p> <p>I’m a botanist and my work takes me all over the world in pursuit of plants. Seeing a plant in the wild helps you understand how it is adapted to a given environment and how you can recreate that environment in your home. When I bring a new plant into my home, I ask: how would you grow in nature? And where would you be happiest? </p> <p>The roots of <a href="https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/phalaenopsis/growing-guide">Phalaenopsis</a> (a popular indoor orchid) cling to tree branches in the wild. An orchid’s roots need air around them and they cannot withstand sitting in water. But showering the orchid regularly and allowing the water to drain freely mimics a tropical rainstorm, so it suits the plant perfectly.</p> <p>In a rainforest in the Philippines, I once saw an <a href="https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/912/alocasia/details">Alocasia</a> (a popular foliage plant with striking veins) growing just metres from a <a href="https://www.rhsplants.co.uk/plants/_/asplenium-nidus/classid.2000028174/">bird’s-nest-fern</a> (another houseplant with glossy green fronds). </p> <p>The Alocasia was growing on the shady forest floor and the bird’s-nest-fern was sprouting from the fork of a tree above it. The Alocasia likes filtered light, and much like orchids, the bird’s-nest-fern enjoys good drainage.</p> <p>To grow a houseplant well, you must learn to think like a plant. So, here are my top tips for keeping your houseplants healthy.</p> <h2>1. Where should your plant go?</h2> <p>There’s a bewildering variety of plants available now that <a href="https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ppp3.10257">houseplants are taking over our homes</a>. But it’s good to remember the old adage “right plant, right place”. </p> <p>It’s no good growing a cactus in a shady corner – it simply won’t work. Start with the conditions you have in your home and go from there.</p> <p>A bright, humid place such as a kitchen or bathroom windowsill is perfect for most tropical or subtropical houseplants. <a href="https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/types/cacti-succulents">Cacti and succulents</a>, which are adapted to live in deserts, instead need as much sunlight as possible all year round.</p> <p>Many houseplants also thrive on a spell outdoors – typically from June to August. I place my succulents outside against a warm wall during summer. </p> <p>But avoid moving a plant into full sun too quickly. Even a <a href="https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/banana/growing-guide">banana plant</a>, which flourishes under tropical sun, can scorch if you change its conditions too abruptly.</p> <h2>2. When and how should you water?</h2> <p>Plants generally prefer liberal watering in the summer months when they’re growing actively, and far less in the winter. Taking this to extremes, I keep cacti and succulents in an unheated greenhouse and do not water them at all from October to April. Desert nights are cold, so many of these plants are surprisingly cold-hardy when dry. </p> <p>By contrast, I keep a large <a href="https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/140276/monstera/details">Swiss cheese plant</a> in a shady corner, and water it fortnightly in winter and weekly in summer. Like people, it thrives on routine. </p> <p>But even then, it’s important to water all of your plants with lukewarm – and never cold – water. This enhances absorption and avoids temperature-shock. Using body temperature (37℃) water is a good rule of thumb.</p> <p>Carnivorous plants, such as the <a href="https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/5893/i-dionaea-muscipula-i/details">Venus flytrap</a>, that derive their nutrients from trapping and consuming insects instead need rain. They hate tap water.</p> <h2>3. Should you feed them?</h2> <p>Most houseplants will plod along with little or no supplementary plant food (such as a liquid fertiliser). But some, including foliage plants like <a href="https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/95720/ficus-elastica/details">rubber figs</a> and Swiss cheese plants, will prosper if you do decide to feed them. </p> <p>This is best given in the summer months when the plants are growing actively. I use tomato feed for just about all my houseplants in the summer. But the feed is very diluted for some plants, such as orchids, that can be sensitive to over-feeding. </p> <p>Tomato feed for houseplants isn’t conventional but it works for me. Garden centres instead sell concentrated liquid feed specific for potted houseplants. </p> <h2>4. When to repot?</h2> <p>Many houseplants can withstand the same pot for a surprisingly long time, especially slow and steady growers like cacti. But if you keep foliage plants in warm conditions – particularly in homes with underfloor heating – they’re likely to need repotting regularly to avoid drying out. </p> <p>When repotting, choose one or two pot sizes up. This allows for root space, but avoids an excess of stagnant compost.</p> <p>It’s also important to use the right compost. Most plants do well in multipurpose compost – but not all. </p> <p>Orchids prefer “orchid bark” that provides drainage and allows plenty of air around the roots. Carnivorous plants require specialist compost because they object to the high concentrations of nutrients formulated in multipurpose. And keep things green by avoiding peat – destroying peat bogs to make garden compost <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10113-022-01900-8">is environmentally damaging</a>.</p> <p>To allow your houseplants to flourish further, top-dress your pots with grit or shingle. This will keep <a href="https://www.rhs.org.uk/biodiversity/fungus-gnats">fungus gnats</a> (those pesky little black flies) at bay.</p> <p>People often tell me they struggle to keep their houseplants alive. But keeping a thriving indoor thicket need not be difficult. Learning which plants to choose, how best to water and feed them, and how regularly they need repotting will all help to keep your indoor plants healthy.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article originally appeared on <a href="https://theconversation.com/learn-to-think-like-a-plant-five-questions-to-think-about-if-you-want-to-keep-your-houseplants-healthy-204291" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Conversation</a>. </em></p>

Home & Garden

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Mum of four saved by her smartwatch

<p dir="ltr">Ricki-Lee Wynne was gifted a smartwatch from her husband for her 40th birthday and she believes that without it, she wouldn’t be alive today.</p> <p dir="ltr">"There's no doubt that my smartwatch saved my life," she told 9news.com.au.</p> <p dir="ltr">Months prior to receiving the watch, Wynne had been experiencing strange health problems. </p> <p dir="ltr">"I was getting a pain over my shoulder blades and it hurt each time I breathed in," she said.</p> <p dir="ltr">Doctors were confused and Wynne was in and out of hospital having several X-rays, scans and blood tests in an attempt to find the underlying issue.</p> <p dir="ltr">Wynne also had an echocardiogram to test the functioning of her heart, all of which appeared normal. </p> <p dir="ltr">"The doctors were not sure what it was. They thought it could be a low-grade blood cancer," she said. </p> <p dir="ltr">The pain subsided for a little while but soon enough Wynne’s breathing problems returned. </p> <p dir="ltr">"I woke up one day and I couldn't breathe properly. I was just walking into work and I was thinking, 'Gosh, I can't get enough air into my lungs,'" she said.</p> <p dir="ltr">"I couldn't walk from one side of the room to the other without being short of breath.</p> <p dir="ltr">"I went to my GP and had an x-ray done, but nothing showed up.”</p> <p dir="ltr">That’s when Wynne noticed her smartwatch was acting up. </p> <p dir="ltr">"I'd been struggling with my watch for days to try and get the heart rate to show up," she said. </p> <p dir="ltr">The heart rate function of her smartwatch had never been an issue before, but now it was struggling to pick it up. </p> <p dir="ltr">"It was saying you need to change the position to measure a pulse," she said.</p> <p dir="ltr">"My chest was also feeling kind of wobbly for a couple of nights when I went to bed.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Despite her X-ray showing coming up clear, Wynne said she went back to see her GP and told him she was worried something was really wrong.</p> <p dir="ltr">"I just said to him, 'Even my heart rate isn't right, look at my watch,' and I showed it to him.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Wynne’s GP sent her off for an ECG which showed her heart rate had dropped to just 29 beats per minute, a major cause for concern. </p> <p dir="ltr">"As soon as I had the ECG, I had the doctor call me back and say you need to go straight to Box Hill Hospital," she said.</p> <p dir="ltr">"I was told at the hospital that if I hadn't come in I would have just died in my sleep.</p> <p dir="ltr">"I would not have woken up and my heart would have stopped.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Wynne was then fitted with an emergency pacemaker and eventually diagnosed with a rare auto-immune disorder called sarcoidosis, a condition that causes inflammation in different parts of the body, most commonly the lungs. </p> <p dir="ltr">Doctors believe Wynne's Sarcoidosis moved from her lungs to her heart, causing her to become extremely ill. </p> <p dir="ltr">She still has the pacemaker in and combined with medication, her health has improved significantly. </p> <p dir="ltr">It’s safe to say Wynne won’t be taking off her smartwatch any time soon.</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image credit: Shutterstock</em></p>

Technology

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Young woman loses all four limbs to mozzie bites

<p>A woman has shared her story of waking up from a coma to discover all four of her limbs had been amputated.</p> <p>Tatiana Timon, 35, was on a dream trip to Angola, South Africa, as part of a dance group, but her health took a turn for the worse when she arrived back home in Camberwell, South London.</p> <p>The 35-year-old had spent 10 days in Angola before flying home and within days her health had declined, leaving her extremely weak.</p> <p>Tatiana was rushed to hospital where doctors confirmed she had contracted a deadly form of malaria.</p> <p>She had contracted the disease from a mosquito bite while overseas in May 2022.</p> <p>Her condition quickly worsened and she was put into an induced coma after developing sepsis.</p> <p>“All of my friends and family were worried because the doctor was telling them that I was going to die, like I was about to die three times", she told <em>MyLondon</em>.</p> <p>In order to stop blood poisoning from spreading to her vital organs, doctors were forced to amputate all four limbs.</p> <p>“When I woke up from the coma I knew, I saw that I was in hospital, and I knew something had happened to me", she said.</p> <p>“At that time I didn’t know how bad it was, like I just knew something had happened.”</p> <p>Tatiana says she strives to come independent and is fitted with prosthetic arms and legs.</p> <p>She shares frequent updates on her Instagram page and vows to stay positive during this hard time.</p> <p>"Now even without limbs I know that I will go back to the gym”, she wrote on one post.</p> <p>“I am determined to go back to being my healthy self, mentally and physically.”</p> <p>Tatiana is currently fundraising with hopes of buying new prosthetics which come with a hefty price tag, costing up to $294,100.</p> <p>“A negative thing I can turn into a positive thing to make my life easier because I don’t like to stress.</p> <p>“It happened, so I need to deal with it.”</p> <p><em>Image credit: Instagram/Facebook</em></p>

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Painting by four-legged Van Gogh sells for five figures

<p dir="ltr">A very good boy named Van Gogh has raised a hefty sum of money for a good cause. </p> <p dir="ltr">The one-eared four-legged artist has used his extraordinary talents to create his own rendition of his namesake’s masterpiece <em>Starry Night</em>. </p> <p dir="ltr">At an online benefit auction for the <a href="https://www.happilyfureverafter.org/">Happily Furever After Rescue</a> in Connecticut, USA, pet food company Pedigree paid $10,000 for the artwork. </p> <p dir="ltr">The rescue home was the one that found Van Gogh his new forever home, after sharing his artistic talents online. </p> <p dir="ltr">All the proceeds of Van Gogh the dog’s auction will benefit the rescue efforts of Happily Furever After, which specialises in rehoming dogs like pit bulls, who can sometimes have a hard time finding homes.</p> <p dir="ltr">The paintings in the current auction, titled “<em>Van Gogh Reimagined</em>,” are all based on compositions by the original Van Gogh.</p> <p dir="ltr">However, unlike a painting by the Dutch master, the dog’s art starts the bidding at just $25 a piece.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Having Van Gogh create some of history’s most famous paintings felt like big shoes to fill,” founder Jaclyn Gartner told <a href="https://news.artnet.com/market/van-gogh-rescue-dog-charity-auction-2264707">Artnet News</a>. </p> <p dir="ltr">“There was a lot more attention to detail this time around to make sure to incorporate all the colours and try to recreate the pieces as closely as possible.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Since finding his new home, Van Gogh has created more than 150 new works of art. </p> <p dir="ltr">To make each masterpiece, a person applies blobs of colours of paint to a canvas placed inside a plastic bag. </p> <p dir="ltr">The talented dog then completes the artwork by licking off a coating of peanut butter or other dog-friendly treats from the outside of the bag, making the artwork inside. </p> <p dir="ltr">“The most exciting part about Van Gogh painting is never really knowing what it’s going to come out to look like as it depends on how his tongue slides across the peanut butter coated bag,” Gartner said.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Since we did the art gallery in October, Van Gogh has explored more tasty toppings,” she added. </p> <p dir="ltr">“We have begun incorporating other things like ground up liverwurst, pumpkin puree, and goat whip. Painting has become an even more delicious hobby for Van Gogh!“</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image credits: Happily Furever After Rescue</em></p>

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