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Grieving dad fights for "ZaZa's Law" after toddler dies in his arms

<p>A grieving father has called for change after his toddler tragically died from choking on a grape. </p> <p>Brian Bwoga, a 44-year-old dad from Perth was at the beach with his two sons, Alessandro, four, and Zaire (ZaZa) 22 months, at the beginning of the year on what seemed like a normal family day out. </p> <p>But what was meant to be an idyllic summer’s day soon turned into any parent’s worst nightmare.</p> <p>“The weather was amazing, the boys were playing and it was just the perfect summer’s day,” Brian, who parents his boys with their mother Claudia, 39, told <a href="https://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/real-life/news-life/perth-toddler-dies-five-minutes-after-being-eating-popular-snack/news-story/0bfb598fe70bb5b47259cdc3b80c60cd" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>news.com.au</em></a>.</p> <p>“I was gathering up our things ready to go home. My older son Alex came up to me and asked if he could play for just five more minutes. I was carrying ZaZa, and I told them both to go and play together with their friends while I finish packing the car."</p> <p>“The next minute ZaZa is just running to me, holding his neck and gasping for air."</p> <p>“I jumped into action and did CPR, I put my fingers inside his throat and got one grape out. I was so relieved, I thought thank god I got it out. But I didn’t know there were four more grapes inside his throat.”</p> <p>The toddler continued to choke on the grapes, and Brian says his eyes started “popping out”.</p> <p>The terrified dad began performing abdominal thrusts to try and dislodge the grapes but to no avail.</p> <p>“I told one of the mothers to call the ambulance. I was terrified,” he recalled.</p> <p>“My older son was scared and asked me why there was blood coming from ZaZa’s mouth. I told him to go with another parent because I didn’t want him to see this. I was holding ZaZa and he was looking at me. I gave him CPR again and I tried so hard to save him."</p> <p>“He gave me this look and died in my arms.”</p> <p>“I left home with a beach bag and left with a body bag. It happened so quick. Within a few minutes he was gone. My son Alex is traumatised. He misses his brother so much and I don’t know how to fix it.”</p> <p>Grapes are a notorious choking hazard for children under the age of 5, as it is often recommended to always cut up grapes when feeding them to young kids.</p> <p>Sadly, Zaza consumed the grapes whole, and although the mistake cost his son his life, he doesn't place the blame on anyone.</p> <p>Instead, he wants to educate the public about the importance of cutting up grapes and is now fighting for <a href="https://www.change.org/p/zaza-s-law?source_location=petitions_browse" target="_blank" rel="noopener">change</a> as he hopes to introduce ‘ZaZa’s Law’ to parliament. </p> <p>This new law would ensure there are choking hazard labels on all grape packets and other food items that could be dangerous for small children.</p> <p>“I would hate for this to happen to anyone else. But I hear so many stories about kids dying from choking,” he said.</p> <p>“Ideally, I would like a warning label on all grapes and small foods to warn people to cut them up. Even a big sign at the supermarket for parents."</p> <p>“Not everyone knows this, but every parent needs to be aware of the dangers of food. I want ZaZa’s Law to come into parliament to get labels on everything."</p> <p>“We buy toys and they come with warning labels for things like batteries or other choking hazards. Why can’t we do the same for food?”</p> <p>The dad also hopes that a new anti-choking device, called LifeVac, might be more widely introduced in Australia and placed in public spaces.</p> <p>“Everywhere you go, shopping centres or beaches, there is a defibrillator on the wall,” he explained.</p> <p>“That is great, but we also need those anti-choking devices. It sucks everything up like a plunger and has saved so many lives."</p> <p>“If we had that at the beach that day, ZaZa might still be here.”</p> <p><em>Image credits: Courtesy of Brian Bwoga</em></p>

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Riley Keough fights Graceland foreclosure sale

<p>Elvis Presley's granddaughter Riley Keough has taken legal action against a company's plan to publicly auction Graceland estate in Memphis county, after she accused them of providing "fraudulent" documents. </p> <p>A public notice for a foreclosure sale of the 13-acre estate was posted in early May said that Promenade Trust, the company which controls the Graceland museum, owed $US3.8 million ($5.7 million) after failing to repay a 2018 loan.</p> <p>Keough's late mother, Lisa Marie Presley, allegedly signed the deed of trust and used Graceland as collateral. </p> <p>Naussany Investments and Private Lending, a Missouri-based company who managed the loan, claims that Lisa Marie failed to repay the loan. </p> <p>A public auction for the estate had been scheduled for Thursday this week, but a judge has blocked the sale after Keough sought a temporary restraining order and filed a lawsuit. </p> <p>In the lawsuit, Keough asserts that her mother never borrowed any money, and alleged that Lisa Marie’s signatures were forged and that Naussany Investments isn’t even a legitimate company.</p> <p>"Lisa Maria Presley never borrowed money from Naussany Investments and never gave a deed of trust to Naussany Investments," Keough's lawyer wrote in a lawsuit.</p> <p>“These documents are fraudulent.</p> <p>“Furthermore, the notary listed on the documents denies notarising Lisa Marie’s signature or ever meeting her.”</p> <p>A source told <em>The New York Post</em> that Keough is “traumatised” at what has unfolded and “never thought that a historic piece of property could even be considered to go into the hands of any random stranger”.</p> <p>An injunction hearing is set for Wednesday. </p> <p>Elvis bought the Graceland estate in 1957. After his death in 1977, his daughter Lisa Marie Presley inherited it and opened it up as a public museum five years later. After her death last year, her daughter Riley Keough became the heir. </p> <p><em>Image: Carl Timpone/BFA.com/ Shutterstock Editorial</em></p> <p> </p>

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Stuck in fight-or-flight mode? 5 ways to complete the ‘stress cycle’ and avoid burnout or depression

<div class="theconversation-article-body"> <p>Can you remember a time when you felt stressed leading up to a big life event and then afterwards felt like a weight had been lifted? This process – the ramping up of the stress response and then feeling this settle back down – shows completion of the “stress cycle”.</p> <p>Some stress in daily life is unavoidable. But remaining stressed is unhealthy. <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2568977/">Chronic stress</a> increases <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32886587/">chronic health conditions</a>, including heart disease and stroke and diabetes. It can also lead to <a href="https://theconversation.com/were-all-exhausted-but-are-you-experiencing-burnout-heres-what-to-look-out-for-164393">burnout</a> or <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5137920/">depression</a>.</p> <p>Exercise, cognitive, creative, social and self-soothing activities help us process stress in healthier ways and complete the stress cycle.</p> <h2>What does the stress cycle look like?</h2> <p>Scientists and researchers refer to the “stress response”, often with a focus on the fight-or-flight reactions. The phrase the “stress cycle” has been made popular by <a href="https://www.penguin.co.uk/articles/2019/03/complete-stress-cycle-emotional-exhaustion-burnout">self-help experts</a> but it does have a scientific basis.</p> <p>The <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK541120/">stress cycle</a> is our body’s response to a stressful event, whether real or perceived, physical or psychological. It could be being chased by a vicious dog, an upcoming exam or a difficult conversation.</p> <p>The stress cycle has three stages:</p> <ul> <li> <p><strong>stage 1</strong> is perceiving the threat</p> </li> <li> <p><strong>stage 2</strong> is the fight-or-flight response, driven by our stress hormones: adrenaline and cortisol</p> </li> <li> <p><strong>stage 3</strong> is relief, including physiological and psychological relief. This completes the stress cycle.</p> </li> </ul> <p>Different people will respond to stress differently based on their life experiences and <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181835/#:%7E:text=The%20major%20findings%20regarding%20the,renin%2Dangiotensin%2Daldosterone%20system%20or">genetics</a>.</p> <p>Unfortunately, many people experience <a href="https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2023/01/polycrisis-global-risks-report-cost-of-living/">multiple and ongoing stressors</a> out of their control, including the cost-of-living crisis, extreme weather events and <a href="https://www.aihw.gov.au/family-domestic-and-sexual-violence/types-of-violence/family-domestic-violence">domestic violence</a>.</p> <p>Remaining in stage 2 (the flight-or-flight response), can lead to chronic stress. <a href="https://theconversation.com/how-chronic-stress-changes-the-brain-and-what-you-can-do-to-reverse-the-damage-133194">Chronic stress</a> and high cortisol can increase <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5476783/">inflammation</a>, which damages our brain and other organs.</p> <p>When you are stuck in chronic fight-or-flight mode, you don’t think clearly and are more easily distracted. Activities that provide temporary pleasure, such as eating junk food or drinking alcohol are <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/acer.14518">unhelpful strategies</a> that do not reduce the stress effects on our brain and body. Scrolling through social media is also not an effective way to complete the stress cycle. In fact, this is associated with an <a href="https://www.apa.org/monitor/2022/11/strain-media-overload">increased stress response</a>.</p> <h2>Stress and the brain</h2> <p>In the brain, chronic high cortisol can <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4561403/">shrink the hippocampus</a>. This can <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1557684/#:%7E:text=The%20hippocampal%20formation%20plays%20a,%2C%20memory%2C%20motivation%20and%20emotion.&amp;text=Therefore%2C%20reduced%20hippocampal%20volumes%20should,in%20patients%20with%20major%20depression">impair a person’s memory</a> and their capacity to think and concentrate.</p> <p>Chronic high cortisol also <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2907136/#:%7E:text=The%20prefrontal%20cortex%20(PFC)%20intelligently,brain%20regions%20(BOX%201).">reduces activity</a> in the prefrontal cortex but <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352289514000101">increases activity</a> in the amygdala.</p> <p>The prefrontal cortex is responsible for higher-order control of our thoughts, behaviours and emotions, and is <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/psychology/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00761/full">goal-directed</a> and rational. The amygdala is involved in reflexive and emotional responses. Higher amygdala activity and lower prefrontal cortex activity explains why we are less rational and more emotional and reactive when we are stressed.</p> <p>There are five <a href="https://www.penguin.co.uk/articles/2019/03/complete-stress-cycle-emotional-exhaustion-burnout">types of activities</a> that can help our brains complete the stress cycle.</p> <figure><iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/eD1wliuHxHI?wmode=transparent&amp;start=0" width="440" height="260" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen"></iframe><figcaption><span class="caption">It can help to understand how the brain encounters stress.</span></figcaption></figure> <h2>1. Exercise – its own complete stress cycle</h2> <p>When we exercise we get a short-term spike in cortisol, followed by a <a href="https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/exercising-to-relax">healthy reduction</a> in cortisol and adrenaline.</p> <p>Exercise also <a href="https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/exercise-and-stress/art-20044469#:%7E:text=Exercise%20in%20almost%20any%20form,distract%20you%20from%20daily%20worries.&amp;text=You%20know%20that%20exercise%20does,fit%20it%20into%20your%20routine.">increases endorphins and serotonin</a>, which improve mood. Endorphins cause an elated feeling often called “runner’s high” and have <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33396962/">anti-inflammatory effects</a>.</p> <p>When you exercise, there is more blood flow to the brain and <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6721405/">higher activity</a> in the prefrontal cortex. This is why you can often think more clearly after a walk or run. Exercise can be a helpful way to <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/heart-disease/exercise-stress-relief">relieve feelings of stress</a>.</p> <p>Exercise can also increase the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3041121/">volume</a> of the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4915811/">hippocampus</a>. This is linked to better short-term and long-term memory processing, as well as reduced stress, depression and anxiety.</p> <h2>2. Cognitive activities – reduce negative thinking</h2> <p>Overly negative thinking can trigger or extend the stress response. In our 2019 research, we found the relationship between stress and cortisol was <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6987429/">stronger in people with more negative thinking</a>.</p> <p>Higher amygdala activity and less rational thinking when you are stressed can lead to <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18628348/">distorted thinking</a> such as focusing on negatives and rigid “black-and-white” thinking.</p> <p>Activities to reduce negative thinking and promote a more realistic view can reduce the stress response. In clinical settings this is usually called <a href="https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/cognitive-behaviour-therapy-cbt">cognitive behaviour therapy</a>.</p> <p>At home, this could be journalling or writing down worries. This engages the logical and rational parts of our brain and helps us think more realistically. Finding evidence to challenge negative thoughts (“I’ve prepared well for the exam, so I can do my best”) can help to complete the stress cycle.</p> <h2>3. Getting creative – a pathway out of ‘flight or fight’</h2> <p>Creative activities can be art, craft, gardening, cooking or <a href="https://heartmindonline.org/resources/10-exercises-for-your-prefrontal-cortex">other activities</a> such as doing a puzzle, juggling, music, theatre, dancing or simply being absorbed in enjoyable work.</p> <p>Such pursuits increase <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/psychology/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00761/full">prefrontal cortex activity</a> and promote flow and focus.</p> <p>Flow is a <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/psychology/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.645498/full">state of full engagement</a> in an activity you enjoy. It lowers high-stress levels of noradrenaline, the brain’s adrenaline. When you are focussed like this, the brain only processes information relevant to the task and ignores non-relevant information, including stresses.</p> <h2>4. Getting social and releasing feel-good hormones</h2> <p>Talking with someone else, physical affection with a person or pet and laughing can all <a href="https://theconversation.com/what-happens-in-our-brain-and-body-when-were-in-love-198885">increase oxytocin</a>. This is a chemical messenger in the brain that increases social bonding and makes us feel connected and safe.</p> <p>Laughing is also a social activity that <a href="https://neurosciencenews.com/laughter-physical-mental-psychology-17339/">activates parts</a> of the limbic system – the part of the brain involved in emotional and behavioural responses. This increases <a href="https://www.jneurosci.org/content/37/36/8581">endorphins</a> and <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27439375/">serotonin</a> and improves our mood.</p> <h2>5. Self-soothing</h2> <p>Breathing <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6189422/">exercises</a> and meditation stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system (which calms down our stress responses so we can “reset”) via the <a href="https://theconversation.com/our-vagus-nerves-help-us-rest-digest-and-restore-can-you-really-reset-them-to-feel-better-210469">vagus nerves</a>, and <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17437199.2020.1760727">reduce cortisol</a>.</p> <p>A good <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4035568/#:%7E:text=We%20conclude%20that%2C%20in%20addition,self%2Dsoothing%20effects%20of%20crying.">cry can help too</a> by releasing stress energy and increasing oxytocin and endorphins.</p> <p><a href="https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319631#:%7E:text=Possible%20benefits%20of%20crying%20include,of%201.9%20times%20a%20month.">Emotional tears</a> also remove cortisol and the hormone prolactin from the body. Our prior research showed <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29096223/">cortisol</a> and <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9216608/">prolactin</a> were associated with depression, anxiety and hostility.<em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/theresa-larkin-952095">Theresa Larkin</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-wollongong-711">University of Wollongong</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/susan-j-thomas-1293985">Susan J. Thomas</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-wollongong-711">University of Wollongong</a></em></p> <h2>Action beats distraction</h2> <p>Whether it’s watching a funny or sad movie, exercising, journalling, gardening or doing a puzzle, there is science behind why you should complete the stress cycle.</p> <p>Doing at least one positive activity every day can also reduce our baseline stress level and is beneficial for good mental health and wellbeing.</p> <p>Importantly, chronic stress and <a href="https://theconversation.com/are-you-burnt-out-at-work-ask-yourself-these-4-questions-118128">burnout</a> can also indicate the need for change, <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/wps.20311">such as in our workplaces</a>. However, not all stressful circumstances can be easily changed. Remember help is always available.</p> <p>If you have concerns about your stress or health, please talk to a doctor.</p> <p><em>If this article has raised issues for you, or if you’re concerned about someone you know, call <a href="https://www.lifeline.org.au/">Lifeline</a> on 13 11 14 or <a href="https://kidshelpline.com.au/">Kids Helpline</a> on 1800 55 1800.</em><!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/218599/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/theresa-larkin-952095">Theresa Larkin</a>, Associate professor of Medical Sciences, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-wollongong-711">University of Wollongong</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/susan-j-thomas-1293985">Susan J. Thomas</a>, Associate professor in Mental Health and Behavioural Science, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-wollongong-711">University of Wollongong</a></em></p> <p><em>Image </em><em>credits: Getty Images </em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/stuck-in-fight-or-flight-mode-5-ways-to-complete-the-stress-cycle-and-avoid-burnout-or-depression-218599">original article</a>.</em></p> </div>

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"Stuff youse": Pensioner who's never owned a phone fights mobile detection camera fine

<p>A pensioner from New South Wales has disputed a fine he was issued for using his phone while driving, despite never owning a phone. </p> <p>Frank Singh, 77, was captured on a mobile phone detection camera while driving on the Pacific Motorway last September, and was issued a fine for $362. </p> <p>Mr Singh has refused to pay the fine, claiming that he was holding his wallet when the image was captured. </p> <p>He also claims to have never owned a mobile phone or a computer in his life, wondering how the camera made such a mistake. </p> <p>The senior man decided to appeal and take Revenue NSW to court, despite the risk of paying thousands in legal fees if he lost the case.</p> <p>"Looks like I'm guilty on it, but I'm not," he told <em>A Current Affair</em>. </p> <p>"I thought, what the bloody hell is this all about, I don't own a mobile phone. I've never used a mobile phone. What a load of s***."</p> <p>When questioned what the item could be, he said, "I think it could be my wallet."</p> <p>While Mr Singh admitted he can't specifically remember what he was doing at the time, he believes he was possibly placing his wallet on the passenger seat after paying for fuel. </p> <p>Unfortunately, the review of the fine was rejected and Frank was ordered to pay the $362, but he has not given up. </p> <p>"Then I thought stuff youse, I'm not guilty, I don't own a bloody phone," he said.</p> <p>While preparing to appeal the fine once more, Revenue NSW revoked the fine after issuing a letter to Mr Singh saying he would not be required in court following an investigation by the government body. </p> <p>"We have decided to cancel the fine," the letter read. </p> <p>"You little bloody beauty, how good's that," Mr Singh said on hearing the news, before planning to celebrate the win with a beer at his local pub. </p> <p><em>Image credits: A Current Affair </em></p>

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Stage 3 stacks up: the rejigged tax cuts help fight bracket creep and boost middle and upper-middle households

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/ben-phillips-98866">Ben Phillips</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/australian-national-university-877">Australian National University</a></em></p> <p>The winners and losers from the Albanese government’s <a href="https://treasury.gov.au/sites/default/files/2024-01/tax-cuts-government-fact-sheet.pdf">rejig</a> of this year’s Stage 3 tax cuts have already been well documented.</p> <p>From July 1 every taxpayer will get a tax cut. Most, the 11 million taxpayers earning up to A$146,486, will also pay less tax than they would have under the earlier version of Stage 3, some getting a tax cut <a href="https://theconversation.com/albanese-tax-plan-will-give-average-earner-1500-tax-cut-more-than-double-morrisons-stage-3-221875">twice as big</a>.</p> <p>A much smaller number, 1.8 million, will get a smaller tax cut than they would have under the original scheme, although their cuts will still be big. The highest earners will get cuts of $4,529 instead of $9,075.</p> <p>But many of us live in households where income is shared and many households don’t pay tax because the people in them don’t earn enough or are on benefits.</p> <p>The Australian National University’s <a href="https://csrm.cass.anu.edu.au/research/policymod">PolicyMod</a> model is able to work out the impacts at the household level, including the impact on households in which members are on benefits or don’t earn enough to pay tax.</p> <h2>More winners than losers in every broad income group</h2> <p>We’ve divided Australian households into five equal-size groups ranked by income, from lowest to lower-middle to middle to upper-middle to high.</p> <p>Our modelling finds that, just as is the case for individuals, many more households will be better off with the changes to Stage 3 than would have been better off with Stage 3 as it was, although the difference isn’t as extreme.</p> <p>Overall, 58% of households will be better off with the reworked Stage 3 than they would have under the original and 11% will be worse off.</p> <p>Importantly, there remain 31% who will be neither better off nor worse off, because they don’t pay personal income tax.</p> <hr /> <p><iframe id="0CWXE" class="tc-infographic-datawrapper" style="border: none;" src="https://datawrapper.dwcdn.net/0CWXE/4/" width="100%" height="400px" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <hr /> <p>But it is different for different types of households.</p> <p>In the lowest-earning fifth of households, far more are better off (13.5%) than worse off (0.2%) with the overwhelming bulk neither better nor worse off (86.3%).</p> <hr /> <p><iframe id="KC5zy" class="tc-infographic-datawrapper" style="border: none;" src="https://datawrapper.dwcdn.net/KC5zy/3/" width="100%" height="400px" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <hr /> <p>In the highest-earning fifth of households, while more than half are better off (54.4%), a very substantial proportion are worse off (42.3%).</p> <p>Very few (only 3.1%) are neither better nor worse off.</p> <hr /> <p><iframe id="WSkSL" class="tc-infographic-datawrapper" style="border: none;" src="https://datawrapper.dwcdn.net/WSkSL/3/" width="100%" height="400px" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <hr /> <h2>But high-earning households go backwards on average</h2> <p>In dollar terms, the top-earning fifth of households loses money while every group gains. That’s because although there are more winners than losers among the highest-earning fifth of households, the losers lose more money.</p> <p>The biggest dollar gains go to middle and upper-middle income households with middle-income households ahead, on average, by $988 per year and upper-middle income households by $1,102. The highest-income households are worse off by an average of $837 per year.</p> <p>As a percentage of income, middle-income households gain the most with a 1% increase in disposable income. Lowest income households gain very little, while the highest-income households go backwards by 0.3%.</p> <hr /> <p><iframe id="kAPmC" class="tc-infographic-datawrapper" style="border: none;" src="https://datawrapper.dwcdn.net/kAPmC/3/" width="100%" height="400px" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <hr /> <h2>The rejig does a better job of fighting bracket creep</h2> <p>And we’ve found something else.</p> <p>The original version of the Stage 3 tax cuts was advertised as a measure to overcome <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-2-main-arguments-against-redesigning-the-stage-3-tax-cuts-are-wrong-heres-why-221975">bracket creep</a>, which is what happens when a greater proportion of taxpayers’ income gets pushed into higher tax brackets as incomes climb.</p> <p>We have found it wouldn’t have done it for most of the income groups, leaving all but the highest-earning group paying more tax after the change in mid-2024 than it used to in 2018.</p> <p>The rejigged version of Stage 3 should compensate for bracket creep better, leaving the top two groups paying less than they did in 2018 and compensating the bottom three better than the original Stage 3.</p> <hr /> <p><iframe id="YG0cT" class="tc-infographic-datawrapper" style="border: none;" src="https://datawrapper.dwcdn.net/YG0cT/1/" width="100%" height="400px" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <hr /> <p>Not too much should be made of the increase in tax rates in the lowest income group between 2018 ad 2024 because some of it reflects stronger income growth.</p> <p>We find that overall, the redesigned Stage 3 does a better job of offsetting bracket creep than the original. It is also better targeted to middle and upper-middle income households.</p> <p>Having said that, the average benefit in dollar terms isn’t big. At about $1,000 per year for middle and upper-middle income households and costing the budget about what the original Stage 3 tax cuts would have cost, its inflationary impact compared to the original looks modest.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/221851/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/ben-phillips-98866"><em>Ben Phillips</em></a><em>, Associate Professor, Centre for Social Research and Methods, Director, Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR), <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/australian-national-university-877">Australian National University</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/stage-3-stacks-up-the-rejigged-tax-cuts-help-fight-bracket-creep-and-boost-middle-and-upper-middle-households-221851">original article</a>.</em></p>

Money & Banking

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Prominent Aussie doctor fighting for life after violent home invasion

<p>Dr. Michael Yung, a distinguished 61-year-old Adelaide doctor and former head of the intensive care unit at Adelaide Women’s and Children’s Hospital, is fighting for his life following a brutal home invasion early on Monday morning.</p> <p>The assault, deemed "life-threatening" by South Australia Police, unfolded within the confines of Dr Yung's opulent $2 million residence on James Street, Gilberton, at approximately 4:20am. Transpiring in one of the city's most affluent suburbs, the incident has been elevated to the status of a "major crime", prompting an expansive manhunt.</p> <p>Upon the arrival of emergency services, Dr Yung, suffering from severe injuries, was promptly transported to the Royal Adelaide Hospital, where he currently remains in critical condition.</p> <p>A comprehensive investigative effort is underway, involving Major Crime Detectives, Eastern District Detectives and patrol officers. Specialised forensic officers have diligently combed through the crime scene, with their efforts extending well into the night.</p> <p>Despite the intensive search, no suspects have been apprehended. Authorities suspect the involvement of multiple offenders, though the investigation is still in its early stages. Officers are actively pursuing leads and appealing to the public for assistance, requesting dashcam footage recorded between 3:30am and 5am on Monday in the vicinity of James Street and Nottage Terrace at Gilberton.</p> <p>CCTV footage has been secured, revealing a group of youths attempting a break-in at a nearby residence in Medindie hours before the assault on Dr Yung. Residents in the area have recently experienced a series of break-ins, although it remains uncertain if this incident is linked to other offences.</p> <p>Dr Yung's 30-year-old son emerged unscathed from the ordeal and is being treated as a witness, not a suspect, by detectives. Additional family members, including his second son, are reportedly en route from interstate to stand vigil by Dr Yung's bedside.</p> <p>This tragedy compounds the family's grief, as it follows the sudden death of Dr Yung's wife, Kathryn Browne-Yung, in March 2020. The wider medical community, as well as the Women’s and Children’s Hospital and SA Health family, are extremely distressed by the attack.</p> <p>SA Health Minister Chris Picton expressed the gravity of the situation, stating, "Dr Michael Yung has been there for so many South Australian children and families at their darkest times – now it is time for all of us to be there for him and his family."</p> <p><em>Images: SA Police / Adelaide Women’s and Children’s Hospital</em></p>

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Do you really need antibiotics? Curbing our use helps fight drug-resistant bacteria

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/minyon-avent-1486987">Minyon Avent</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-queensland-805">The University of Queensland</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/fiona-doukas-1157050">Fiona Doukas</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/kristin-xenos-1491653">Kristin Xenos</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-newcastle-1060">University of Newcastle</a></em></p> <p>Antibiotic resistance occurs when a microorganism changes and no longer responds to an antibiotic that was previously effective. It’s <a href="https://thelancet.com/journals/eclinm/article/PIIS2589-5370(21)00502-2/fulltext">associated with</a> poorer outcomes, a greater chance of death and higher health-care costs.</p> <p>In Australia, antibiotic resistance means some patients are admitted to hospital because oral antibiotics are <a href="https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antibiotic-resistance">no longer effective</a> and they need to receive intravenous therapy via a drip.</p> <p>Antibiotic resistance is rising to high levels in certain parts of the world. Some hospitals <a href="https://www.reactgroup.org/news-and-views/news-and-opinions/year-2022/the-impact-of-antibiotic-resistance-on-cancer-treatment-especially-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-and-the-way-forward/">have to consider</a> whether it’s even viable to treat cancers or perform surgery due to the risk of antibiotic-resistant infections.</p> <p>Australia is <a href="https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/our-work/antimicrobial-resistance/antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-australia-aura/aura-2023-fifth-australian-report-antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-human-health">one of the highest users</a> of antibiotics in the developed world. We need to use this precious resource wisely, or we risk a future where a simple infection could kill you because there isn’t an effective antibiotic.</p> <h2>When should antibiotics not be used?</h2> <p>Antibiotics only work for some infections. They work against bacteria but <a href="https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/publications-and-resources/resource-library/do-i-really-need-antibiotics">don’t treat</a> infections caused by viruses.</p> <p>Most community acquired infections, even those caused by bacteria, are likely to get better without antibiotics.</p> <p>Taking an antibiotic when you don’t need it won’t make you feel better or recover sooner. But it can increase your chance of side effects like nausea and diarrhoea.</p> <p>Some people think green mucus (or snot) is a sign of bacterial infection, requiring antibiotics. But it’s actually <a href="https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/sites/default/files/2023-11/aura_2023_do_i_really_need_antibiotics.pdf">a sign</a> your immune system is working to fight your infection.</p> <h2>If you wait, you’ll often get better</h2> <p><a href="https://www.tg.org.au/">Clinical practice guidelines</a> for antibiotic use aim to ensure patients receive antibiotics when appropriate. Yet 40% of GPs say they prescribe antibiotics <a href="https://doi.org/10.1071/HI13019">to meet patient expectations</a>. And <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35973750/">one in five</a> patients expect antibiotics for respiratory infections.</p> <p>It can be difficult for doctors to decide if a patient has a viral respiratory infection or are at an early stage of serious bacterial infection, particularly in children. One option is to “watch and wait” and ask patients to return if there is clinical deterioration.</p> <p>An alternative is to prescribe an antibiotic but advise the patient to not have it dispensed unless specific symptoms occur. This can <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004417.pub5">reduce antibiotic use by 50%</a> with no decrease in patient satisfaction, and no increase in complication rates.</p> <h2>Sometimes antibiotics are life-savers</h2> <p>For some people – particularly those with a weakened immune system – a simple infection can become more serious.</p> <p>Patients with life-threatening suspected infections should receive an appropriate antibiotic <a href="https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/our-work/clinical-care-standards/antimicrobial-stewardship-clinical-care-standard">immediately</a>. This includes serious infections such as <a href="https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/bacterial-meningitis#:%7E:text=What%20is%20bacterial%20meningitis%3F,can%20cause%20life%2Dthreatening%20problems.">bacterial meningitis</a> (infection of the membranes surrounding the brain) and <a href="https://clinicalexcellence.qld.gov.au/priority-areas/safety-and-quality/sepsis/adult-sepsis#:%7E:text=Adult%20patients%20with%20sepsis%20also,adult%20emergency%20department%20sepsis%20pathway.">sepsis</a> (which can lead to organ failure and even death).</p> <h2>When else might antibiotics be used?</h2> <p>Antibiotics are sometimes used to prevent infections in patients who are undergoing surgery and are at significant risk of infection, such as those undergoing bowel resection. These patients will <a href="https://www.tg.org.au">generally receive</a> a single dose before the procedure.</p> <p>Antibiotics may also <a href="https://www.tg.org.au">be given</a> to patients undergoing chemotherapy for solid organ cancers (of the breast or prostate, for example), if they are at high risk of infection.</p> <p>While most sore throats are caused by a virus and usually resolve on their own, some high risk patients with a bacterial strep A infection which can cause “scarlet fever” are given antibiotics to prevent a more serious infection like <a href="https://www.rhdaustralia.org.au/">acute rheumatic fever</a>.</p> <h2>How long is a course of antibiotics?</h2> <p>The recommended duration of a course of antibiotics depends on the type of infection, the likely cause, where it is in your body and how effective the antibiotics are at killing the bacteria.</p> <p>In the past, courses were largely arbitrary and based on assumptions that antibiotics should be taken for long enough to eliminate the infecting bacteria.</p> <p>More recent research does not support this and shorter courses are <a href="https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/full/10.7326/M19-1509">nearly always as effective as longer ones</a>, particularly for community acquired respiratory infections.</p> <p>For <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736742/">community acquired pneumonia</a>, for example, research shows a three- to five-day course of antibiotics is at least as effective as a seven- to 14-day course.</p> <p>The “take until all finished” approach is no longer recommended, as the longer the antibiotic exposure, the greater the chance the bacteria will develop resistance.</p> <p>However, for infections where it is more difficult to eradicate the bacteria, such as tuberculosis and bone infections, a combination of antibiotics for many months is usually required.</p> <h2>What if your infection is drug-resistant?</h2> <p>You may have an antibiotic-resistant infection if you don’t get better after treatment with standard antibiotics.</p> <p>Your clinician will collect samples for lab testing if they suspect you have antibiotic-resistant infection, based on your travel history (especially if you’ve been hospitalised in a country with high rates of antibiotic resistance) and if you’ve had a recent course of antibiotics that hasn’t cleared your infection.</p> <p>Antibiotic-resistant infections are managed by prescribing broad-spectrum antibiotics. These are like a sledgehammer, wiping out many different species of bacteria. (Narrow-spectrum antibiotics conversely can be thought of as a scalpel, more targeted and only affecting one or two kinds of bacteria.)</p> <p>Broad-spectrum antibiotics are usually more expensive and come with more severe side effects.</p> <h2>What can patients do?</h2> <p>Decisions about antibiotic prescriptions should be made using <a href="https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/our-work/partnering-consumers/shared-decision-making/decision-support-tools-specific-conditions">shared decision aids</a>, where patients and prescribers discuss the risks and benefits of antibiotics for conditions like a sore throat, middle ear infection or acute bronchitis.</p> <p>Consider asking your doctor questions such as:</p> <ul> <li>do we need to test the cause of my infection?</li> <li>how long should my recovery take?</li> <li>what are the risks and benefits of me taking antibiotics?</li> <li>will the antibiotic affect my regular medicines?</li> <li>how should I take the antibiotic (how often, for how long)?</li> </ul> <p>Other ways to fight antibiotic resistance include:</p> <ul> <li>returning leftover antibiotics to a pharmacy for safe disposal</li> <li>never consuming leftover antibiotics or giving them to anyone else</li> <li>not keeping prescription repeats for antibiotics “in case” you become sick again</li> <li>asking your doctor or pharmacist what you can do to feel better and ease your symptoms rather than asking for antibiotics.</li> </ul> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/minyon-avent-1486987">Minyon Avent</a>, Antimicrobial Stewardship Pharmacist, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-queensland-805">The University of Queensland</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/fiona-doukas-1157050">Fiona Doukas</a>, PhD candidate, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/kristin-xenos-1491653">Kristin Xenos</a>, Research Assistant, College of Health, Medicine and Wellbeing, School of Biomedical Science and Pharmacy, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-newcastle-1060">University of Newcastle</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/do-you-really-need-antibiotics-curbing-our-use-helps-fight-drug-resistant-bacteria-217920">original article</a>.</em></p>

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Baby boomers fight back against "self-entitled whingeing generations"

<p>Angry baby boomers have hit back at young Australians for continuing to blame the ageing population for the current housing crisis. </p> <p>A group of disgruntled seniors have shared their thoughts with the <a href="https://www.smh.com.au/national/blaming-baby-boomers-for-your-money-woes-is-unfair-lazy-and-wrong-20231127-p5en21.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Sydney Morning Herald</em></a> about the "self-entitled" young Australians, who are facing never-before-seen financial and social barriers to break into the housing market. </p> <p>The open letters come in the wake of Census data showing empty-nesters are hanging on to their big homes in inner-city suburbs, while young families are struggling to find suitable housing while also battling mortgage stress and renters are getting relentlessly price-gouged. </p> <p>Despite the current system disproportionately affecting younger Australians, boomers have hit back at universal claims that they had it easier back in the day. </p> <p>"We bought and paid for these homes; it's not our job to house the next generations, it's the government's," explained Kathleen Kyle in a letter to the <em>Sydney Morning Herald</em>. </p> <p>"Nobody questions people who spend their money on lovely cars or antiques, or suggests that they don't need them any more."</p> <p>In another letter, Kathy Willis from Kew near Port Macquarie wrote, "Boomers have worked very hard to get what they have, having brought up their families in these homes."</p> <p>"I suggest the discourse be directed to people such as town planners, local councils and state governments for their lack of vision in the past, and what the present authorities are going to do about it – and of course, the taxpayers' expense."</p> <p>Suzanne Hopping from Redfern, Sydney, wrote that she could no longer stay silent on "boomer bashing" from "self-entitled whingeing generations".</p> <p>"I bought my first home when I was 39 in an undesirable suburb. Buying a home (at 17.5 per cent interest) was as difficult then as it is today."</p> <p>"When I left home I had no expectations of ever being able to afford to buy a place of my own."</p> <p>"Self-entitled whingeing generations, if you don't like what you see, do something positive about it. Each generation has its unique problems, stop the moralising."</p> <p>Wendy Cousins from Balgownie NSW wrote that "boomer bashing" is futile, adding, "Why encourage resentment of boomers because many choose to stay in their homes? This will not free up any housing."</p> <p>"Many have already downsized and those who haven't, have a variety of reasons why they don't. We have enough division in our society without the constant boomer bashing."</p> <p>Despite the views of many disgruntled boomers, University of Melbourne Professor Allan Fels, an economist and mental health advocate, said figures show beyond a doubt that life is much tougher for the younger generation, and basic economics prove it is much harder for them to buy a house.</p> <p>"We baby boomers have had it a lot easier than the new generation of young people," he told <a href="https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-12793605/Boomers-hit-self-entitled-whingeing-young-Aussies-reveal-theyre-not-blame-housing-crisis.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Daily Mail Australia</em></a>.</p> <p>"They face a future of much less home ownership and associated mental health stability. The mere fact they are missing out is a cause of stress."</p> <p>"The trend of rising prices adds to the stress because many used to think that they could buy their own house but they keep missing out because prices are continually rising just beyond their grasp."</p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock</em></p>

Money & Banking

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Olympic hero "fighting for her life" in intensive care

<p>In the world of gymnastics, few names shine as brightly as that of Mary Lou Retton. The Olympic gold medallist and legendary American gymnast has long been celebrated for her incredible contributions to the sport, etching her legacy into the annals of history. But now, a dark cloud of concern hovers over this American icon, as she battles a rare and relentless adversary: a severe form of pneumonia.</p> <p>The shocking news has shaken the hearts of fans and sports enthusiasts worldwide, as the daughter of the 55-year-old Retton shared the news that she is "fighting for her life" in an intensive care unit, unable to breathe on her own for over a week now.</p> <p>McKenna Kelley, Retton's daughter, recently set up a <a href="https://www.spotfund.com/story/a2e0582c-e62f-4e5b-a586-18349014f761" target="_blank" rel="noopener">fundraising account</a> to share her mother's grave situation and the urgency of her need for support. The emotional plea disclosed that Mary Lou Retton was uninsured, leaving the burden of her healthcare costs in the hands of her loved ones and well-wishers.</p> <p>In an emotionally charged post on the fundraising platform, Kelley wrote: "My amazing mom, Mary Lou, has a very rare form of pneumonia and is fighting for her life."</p> <p>While respecting her mother's privacy, Kelley refrained from divulging further details about the nature of the pneumonia that has gripped Retton's life, instead requesting the one thing we can all offer – our prayers.</p> <p>Mary Lou Retton's remarkable gymnastics career needs no introduction. She etched her name into the annals of history during the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, securing her place as one of the greatest gymnasts in history.</p> <p>At those Summer Games, Retton achieved an astonishing feat by winning five medals, including a groundbreaking gold in the individual all-around competition, a first for any American woman. Her achievements garnered her the title of Sportsperson of the Year by <em>Sports Illustrated</em> in 1984, a testament to her indomitable spirit and unparalleled dedication to her craft.</p> <p>At the time of writing, the fundraising account dedicated to supporting Mary Lou Retton had received an overwhelming outpouring of love and support. With more than 2,000 donors and counting, the campaign has already raised over $US300,000, surpassing its original goal of $US50,000.</p> <p>The outpouring of generosity underscores the enduring impact and admiration that Mary Lou Retton has left in the hearts of many.</p> <p>Beyond the gymnasium, Retton's influence extended into the world of entertainment, appearing in movies and TV shows, including a memorable stint on <em>Baywatch</em> in 1993 and the film Naked<em> Gun 33 ¹/₃: The Final Insult</em> in 1994. She also served on the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports during President George W. Bush's administration, underscoring her enduring commitment to promoting physical health and well-being.</p> <p>In recognition of her remarkable contributions to the world of gymnastics, Mary Lou Retton was inducted into the International Gymnastics Hall of Fame in 1997 and became the first woman to be honored by the Houston Sports Hall of Fame in 2020. Her legacy extended to the National Italian-American Sports Hall of Fame, inducted in 1992, and in her hometown of Fairmont, West Virginia, a street and park bear her name, a lasting tribute to her enduring impact.</p> <p><em>Images: Instagram</em></p>

Caring

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“Dig a hole in my chest”: Supermodel reveals double cancer fight

<p>Supermodel icon Linda Evangelista has shared the devastating details of her cancer battle, after being diagnosed twice in five years. </p> <p>In a candid interview with <a href="https://www.wsj.com/style/fashion/linda-evangelista-steven-meisel-32909b7b?mod=style_lead_story" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>WSJ magazine</em></a>, the 58-year-old revealed why she chose to "keep it quiet" and only tell a handful of people close to her about her health battle. </p> <p>Evangelista was first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2018 after a routine mammogram, and decided to undergo a bilateral mastectomy: a surgical procedure to remove both breasts. </p> <p>"The margins were not good. [I chose this treatment] due to other health factors, without hesitation, because I wanted to put everything behind me and not to have to deal with this.</p> <p>"Thinking I was good and set for life. Breast cancer was not going to kill me."</p> <p>Four years later in 2022, Evangelista felt a lump on her chest and an MRI revealed cancer was present in her pectoral muscle.</p> <p>"I just went into this mode that I know how to do – just do what you've got to do and get through it," she said. "And that's what I did."</p> <p>"Dig a hole in my chest," she recalled telling her doctors.</p> <p>"I don't want it to look pretty. I want you to excavate. I want to see a hole in my chest when you're done. Do you understand me? I'm not dying from this."</p> <p>After another round of surgery, she was told the outlook was good for the future, but there is always a possibility the cancer could return. </p> <p>"Well, once it's come back, there's a chance," she recalled the oncologist's words.</p> <p>"I know I have one foot in the grave, but I'm totally in celebration mode."</p> <p><em>Image credits: Instagram / Getty Images</em></p>

Caring

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"Finally a celebrity fighting back": Cardi B hurls mic at concert goer

<p>The latest celebrity to be hit with something on stage has fought back, as Cardi B took revenge on the concert goer who threw a drink over her during a performance. </p> <p>The rapper, 30, was performing in Las Vegas on Saturday, as she sang her 2018 song, <em>Bodak Yellow</em>, that propelled her to global fame. </p> <p>During the song, a member of the audience threw their drink on stage, splashing the singer in the liquid. </p> <p>Cardi B immediately retaliated by lobbing her microphone into the crowd, targeting the audience member. </p> <p>The fan was led out of the crowd by security, while the performer took the time to casually fix up her hair before continuing her performance. </p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr" lang="en">Cardi B throws microphone at audience member who threw a drink at her. <a href="https://t.co/alLgHMFshb">pic.twitter.com/alLgHMFshb</a></p> <p>— Pop Base (@PopBase) <a href="https://twitter.com/PopBase/status/1685461526646525952?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">July 30, 2023</a></p></blockquote> <p>The confrontation, which was filmed by many fellow concert goers, has since gone viral, with many commending the artist for fighting back. </p> <p>"Finally a celebrity fighting back," said one.</p> <p>"Exactly, it's about time a performer retaliated to this 'trend'," another agreed.</p> <p>"She did what needed to be done! People need to stop throwing stuff at performers," added another fan.</p> <p>The incident in Vegas was the second time in just 24 hours that the singer was captured on video hurling a microphone at inconsiderate fans. </p> <p>The singer was performing at another club in Las Vegas the night before, when the DJ in control of her music kept cutting out the track as she was trying to sing. </p> <p>After the song stopping and starting abruptly several times, Cardi B yelled out her own name before spinning around and aiming the microphone at the DJ before storming off the stage.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Twitter</em></p>

Music

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What happens in our body when we encounter and fight off a virus like the flu, SARS-CoV-2 or RSV?

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/lara-herrero-1166059">Lara Herrero</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/griffith-university-828">Griffith University</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/wesley-freppel-1408971">Wesley Freppel</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/griffith-university-828">Griffith University</a></em></p> <p><a href="https://www.labcorp.com/coronavirus-disease-covid-19/covid-news-education/covid-19-vs-flu-vs-rsv-how-tell-difference">Respiratory viruses</a> like influenza virus (flu), SARS-CoV-2 (which causes COVID) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can make us sick by infecting our respiratory system, including the nose, upper airways and lungs.</p> <p>They spread from person to person through respiratory droplets when someone coughs, sneezes, or talks and can cause death in serious cases.</p> <p>But what happens in our body when we first encounter these viruses? Our immune system uses a number of strategies to fight off viral infections. Let’s look at how it does this.</p> <h2>First line of defence</h2> <p>When we encounter respiratory viruses, the <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S193131281600038X?via%3Dihub/">first line of defence</a> is the physical and chemical barriers in our nose, upper airways, and lungs. Barriers like the mucus lining and hair-like structures on the surface of cells, work together to trap and remove viruses before they can reach deeper into our respiratory system.</p> <p>Our defence also includes our behaviours such as coughing or sneezing. When we blow our nose, the mucus, viruses, and any other pathogens that are caught within it are expelled.</p> <p>But sometimes, viruses manage to evade these initial barriers and sneak into our respiratory system. This activates the cells of our innate immune system.</p> <h2>Patrolling for potential invaders</h2> <p>While our acquired immune system develops over time, our innate immune system is present at birth. It generates “non-specific” immunity by identifying what’s foreign. The cells of innate immunity act like a patrol system, searching for any invaders. These innate cells patrol almost every part of our body, from our skin to our nose, lungs and even internal organs.</p> <p>Our respiratory system has different type of innate cells such – as macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells – which patrol in our body looking for intruders. If they recognise anything foreign, in this case a virus, they will initiate an attack response.</p> <p>Each cell type plays a slightly different role. Macrophages, for example, will not only engulf and digest viruses (phagocytosis) but also release a cocktail of different molecules (cytokines) that will warn and recruit other cells to <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/cmi.12580">fight against the danger</a>.</p> <p>In the meantime, natural killer cells, aptly named, attack infected cells, and stop viruses from multiplying and <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41577-021-00558-3">invading our body further</a>.</p> <p>Natural killer cells also promote inflammation, a <a href="https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2018/1467538/">crucial part of the immune response</a>. It helps to recruit more immune cells to the site of infection, enhances blood flow, and increases the permeability of blood vessels, allowing immune cells to reach the infected tissues. At this stage, our immune system is fighting a war against viruses and the result can cause inflammation, fevers, coughs and congestion.</p> <h2>Launching a specific attack</h2> <p>As the innate immune response begins, another branch of the immune system called the adaptive immune system is <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21070/">activated</a>.</p> <p>The adaptive immune system is more specific than the innate immune system, and it decides on the correct tools and strategy to fight off the viral invaders. This system plays a vital role in eliminating the virus and providing long-term protection against future infections.</p> <p>Specialised cells called T cells and B cells are key players in acquired immunity.</p> <p>T cells (specifically, helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells) recognise viral proteins on the surface of infected cells:</p> <ul> <li> <p>helper T cells release molecules that <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3764486/">further activate immune cells</a></p> </li> <li> <p>cytotoxic T cells directly kill infected cells with a very great precision, <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00678/full">avoiding any healthy cells around</a>.</p> </li> </ul> <p>B cells produce antibodies, which are proteins that can bind to viruses, neutralise them, and mark them for <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247032/">destruction by other immune cells</a>.</p> <p>B cells are a critical part of memory in our immune system. They will remember what happened and won’t forget for years. When the same virus attacks again, B cells will be ready to fight it off and will neutralise it faster and better.</p> <p>Thanks to the adaptive immune system, vaccines for respiratory viruses such as the COVID mRNA vaccine keep us protected from <a href="https://www.health.gov.au/our-work/covid-19-vaccines/our-vaccines/how-they-work">being sick or severely ill</a>. However, if the same virus became mutated, our immune system will act as if it was a new virus and will have to fight in a war again.</p> <h2>Neutralising the threat</h2> <p>As the immune response progresses, the combined efforts of the innate and adaptive immune systems helps control the virus. Infected cells are cleared, and the virus is neutralised and eliminated from the body.</p> <p>As the infection subsides, symptoms gradually improve, and we begin to feel better and to recover.</p> <p>But recovery varies depending on the specific virus and us as individuals. Some respiratory viruses, like rhinoviruses which cause the common cold, may cause relatively mild symptoms and a quick recovery. Others, like the flu, SARS-CoV-2 or severe cases of RSV, may lead to more severe symptoms and a longer recovery time.</p> <p>Some viruses are very strong and too fast sometimes so that our immune system does not have the time to develop a proper immune response to fight them off. <!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/207023/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/lara-herrero-1166059">Lara Herrero</a>, Research Leader in Virology and Infectious Disease, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/griffith-university-828">Griffith University</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/wesley-freppel-1408971">Wesley Freppel</a>, Research Fellow, Institute for Glycomics, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/griffith-university-828">Griffith University</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/what-happens-in-our-body-when-we-encounter-and-fight-off-a-virus-like-the-flu-sars-cov-2-or-rsv-207023">original article</a>.</em></p>

Body

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What is ‘fawning’? How is it related to trauma and the ‘fight or flight’ response?

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/alix-woolard-409037">Alix Woolard</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/telethon-kids-institute-1608">Telethon Kids Institute</a></em></p> <p>You have probably heard of “fight or flight” responses to distressing situations. You may also be familiar with the tendency to “freeze”. But there is another defence or survival strategy a person can have: “fawn”.</p> <p>When our brain perceives a threat in our environment, our <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/mental-health/fight-flight-freeze#in-the-body">sympathetic nervous system</a> takes over and a person can experience any one or combination of the <a href="https://pete-walker.com/fourFs_TraumaTypologyComplexPTSD.htm">four F</a> responses.</p> <h2>What are the four Fs?</h2> <p>The <strong>fawn</strong> response usually occurs when a person is being attacked in some way, and they try to appease or placate their attacker to protect themselves.</p> <p>A <strong>fight</strong> response is when someone reacts to a threat with aggression.</p> <p><strong>Flight</strong> is when a person responds by fleeing – either literally by leaving the situation, or symbolically, by distracting or avoiding a distressing situation.</p> <p>A <strong>freeze</strong> response occurs when a person realises (consciously or not) that they cannot resist the threat, and they detach themselves or become immobile. They may “space out” and not pay attention, feel disconnected to their body, or have difficulty speaking after they feel threatened.</p> <h2>What does fawning look like?</h2> <p>Previously known as appeasement or “people pleasing”, the term “fawning” was coined by psychotherapist <a href="http://pete-walker.com/complex_ptsd_book.html">Pete Walker</a> in his 2013 book <a href="https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/20556323-complex-ptsd">Complex PTSD: From Surviving to Thriving</a>.</p> <p>A fawn response can look like:</p> <ul> <li>people-pleasing (doing things for others to gain their approval or to make others like you)</li> <li>being overly reliant on others (difficulty making decisions without other people’s input)</li> <li>prioritising the needs of others and ignoring your own</li> <li>being overly agreeable</li> <li>having trouble saying no</li> <li>in more severe cases, <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149763421004917?casa_token=FzabbqNoE0UAAAAA:DAr_QkVegIa70Zheq6vTkCrsYPJdw06kdds659h-VHSRtPSUErDzVgj-YsLunjvGkn4Mwyb1">dissociating</a> (disconnecting from your mind and/or body).</li> </ul> <p>While there isn’t yet much research on this response, the fawn response is seen more in people who have experienced <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00958964.2022.2163220?journalCode=vjee20">complex trauma</a> in their childhood, including among children who grew up with emotionally or physically abusive caregivers.</p> <p>Fawning is also observed in people who are in situations of <a href="https://europepmc.org/article/MED/37052112">interpersonal violence</a> (such as domestic violence, assault or kidnappings), when the person needs to appease or calm a perpetrator to survive.</p> <p>Fawning is also different to the other F responses, in that it seems to be a uniquely human response.</p> <h2>Why do people fawn?</h2> <p><a href="https://www.proquest.com/docview/2447256147/abstract/13E401AC2C1C40C6PQ/1">Research</a> suggests people fawn for two reasons:</p> <ol> <li>to protect themselves or others from physical or emotional harm (such as childhood trauma)</li> <li>to create or improve the emotional connection to the perpetrator of harm (for example, a caregiver).</li> </ol> <p>This type of response is adaptive at the time of the traumatic event(s): by appeasing an attacker or perpetrator, it helps the person avoid harm.</p> <p>However, if a person continues to use this type of response in the long term, as an automatic response to everyday stressors (such difficult interactions with your boss or neighbour), it can have negative consequences.</p> <p>If a person is continually trying to appease others, they may experience issues with boundaries, forming a cohesive identity, and may not feel safe in relationships with others.</p> <h2>What can I do if I ‘fawn’?</h2> <p>Because fawning is typically a response to interpersonal or complex trauma, using it in response to everyday stressors may indicate a need for healing.</p> <p>If this is you, and you have a history of complex trauma, seek psychological support from a professional who is trained in trauma-informed practice. Trauma-informed means the psychological care is holistic, empowering, strengths-focused, collaborative and reflective.</p> <p>Evidence-based therapies that are helpful following trauma include:</p> <ul> <li> <p><a href="https://www.emdr.com/what-is-emdr/">eye movement desensitisation therapy</a>, which focuses on <a href="https://theconversation.com/what-is-emdr-therapy-and-how-does-it-help-people-who-have-experienced-trauma-161743">processing traumatic memories</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/patients-and-families/exposure-therapy#:%7E:text=In%20this%20form%20of%20therapy,reduce%20fear%20and%20decrease%20avoidance.">exposure therapy</a> to help expose people to things they fear and avoid</p> </li> <li> <p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4396183/">trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy</a> that aims to alleviate trauma symptoms by overcoming unhelpful thoughts and behaviours.</p> </li> </ul> <p>Depending on where you live, <a href="https://www.childabuseroyalcommissionresponse.gov.au/support-services">free counselling services</a> may be available for people who have experienced childhood abuse.</p> <p>Setting healthy boundaries is also a common focus when working with the fawn response, which you can do by yourself or alongside a therapist.</p> <p><em>If this article has raised issues for you or you’re concerned about someone you know, call Lifeline on 13 11 14.</em><!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/205024/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: https://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/alix-woolard-409037">Alix Woolard</a>, Senior Researcher, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/telethon-kids-institute-1608">Telethon Kids Institute</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/what-is-fawning-how-is-it-related-to-trauma-and-the-fight-or-flight-response-205024">original article</a>.</em></p>

Caring

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How to holiday with your family without fighting

<p><em><strong>Rachel Croson, Dean, College of Social Science; MSU Foundation Professor of Economics, Michigan State University, explains how to have a holiday with your family without fighting.</strong></em></p> <p>I had the most awesome holiday this year.</p> <p>My husband took our two boys, ages 8 and 10, to his family’s celebration, and I had five days of uninterrupted sleep, fun with friends and grownup time. Don’t get me wrong; I love my husband’s family and I believe that holidays are important opportunities for making memories. But I desperately needed a break, and I got one. And my husband and kids were delighted by the outcome as well.</p> <p>How did this happen? I applied the lessons from my academic study of bargaining and negotiation to my personal life. So, with another holiday season upon us, here’s some guidance on how to negotiate with your partner while strengthening this critical relationship.</p> <p><strong>From theory to practice</strong></p> <p>I became interested in negotiation as a graduate student, and part of my dissertation investigated bargaining behaviour.</p> <p>I have taught negotiation to students and executives, published <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.399.3789&amp;rep=rep1&amp;type=pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">many scholarly articles</a></strong></span> on bargaining and negotiation and given numerous <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="https://www.mchra.org/event-2164407" target="_blank" rel="noopener">public lectures</a></strong></span> on the topic. But, like many academics, I hadn’t thought to apply my academic expertise to my personal life.</p> <p>Once I started to do so, however, I quickly realized that the concepts and skills learned from negotiation can be used not only to get what you need or want out of your family life, but also to make your family life happier overall.</p> <p>The most important insight is that negotiation does not have to be win-lose. It can be win-win.</p> <p><strong>Win-lose versus win-win</strong></p> <p>The popular conception of negotiation is all about getting the best deal for yourself or your side. It was a set of Harvard professors in their <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Getting_to_Yes" target="_blank" rel="noopener">groundbreaking</a></strong></span> 1981 book, <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em><strong><a href="https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/324551/getting-to-yes-by-roger-fisher/9780143118756/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">“Getting to Yes,”</a></strong></em></span> who first popularly introduced the idea that negotiation could be “integrative,” or result in both parties being better off.</p> <p>In practice, <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/074959789090048E" target="_blank" rel="noopener">many negotiators see only “distributive” or win-lose possibilities.</a></strong></span> In their minds, there is a fixed pie over which the parties are fighting: If you win, then I lose. As a result, most of the early <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022103168900681" target="_blank" rel="noopener">academic literature</a></strong></span> and practical guidance has focused on power. As you might imagine, this can be quite problematic for negotiating within the family.</p> <p>In contrast, the idea of integrative or win-win negotiations involves identifying outcomes that are good for both sides.</p> <p>There are a number of ways one can achieve integrative negotiations, but here I will discuss three of the major ones described in <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/324551/getting-to-yes-by-roger-fisher/9780143118756/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">“Getting to Yes”</a></strong></span> and <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="http://amp.aom.org/content/18/3/109" target="_blank" rel="noopener">subsequent articles</a></strong></span>.</p> <p><strong>Trade-offs.</strong> For example, consider a couple sharing a chicken for dinner. One way to share would be to cut the chicken in half and to each get an equal portion. This would be a distributive solution since we are distributing the chicken between the couple, and if one were to get more (win), the other would get less (lose). An integrative agreement can be found by identifying trade-offs between the two parties. For example, it turns out that I like the dark meat and my husband likes the white meat. So I can give him my breast and wing and he can give me his leg and thigh, and we can both win.</p> <p><strong>Adding issues.</strong> A second way to achieve win-win solutions is to change the scope of the negotiation. For example, each year my husband and I negotiate about where to take our summer vacation. I want to go to the forests of Lake Tahoe, and he wants to go to the casinos of Atlantic City. As long as the scope of the negotiation remains focused on this one trip, it will be difficult to satisfy us both. However, imagine we expanded the negotiation to include multiple dimensions. For example, we could make a multi-year deal where we alternated our destinations. Or I could commit to spending our winter vacation in Atlantic City, in exchange for a summer vacation in Lake Tahoe. Or he could agree to let me pick the vacation destination if I allow him to host a monthly poker game at our house.</p> <p><strong>Beyond positions to interests.</strong> A third way to achieve win-win solutions is to move beyond each individual’s position and focus on his or her interests. For example, when my husband and I were getting married, we had our strongest disagreement about the wedding cake. I wanted chocolate and he wanted white (vanilla). After many rounds of arguing, I finally asked why he wanted white cake. He replied that white was traditional and he wanted the cake to be white in the pictures. I told him that my whole family liked chocolate, and we wanted to eat chocolate cake. Once you move beyond positions (white cake versus chocolate cake) to underlying interests (picture cake versus eating cake), many integrative solutions become possible: white chocolate, bride’s cake/groom’s cake, Photoshop and so on.</p> <p>In the end, we had a three-tier cake, with two large chocolate tiers and one small white tier which we fed each other for the photos.</p> <p><strong>Negotiation tactics for the family</strong></p> <p>So, how should you negotiate with your partner, parents or children to get what everyone wants during the holidays?</p> <p>Here are some suggested tactics to help you achieve these win-win outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Be honest, not mean.</strong> To achieve win-win negotiations, all parties involved must be honest about what they want.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="http://www.people.hbs.edu/kmcginn/PDFs/Publishedarticles/1995-friendslovers.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">One study</a></strong></span> found that married couples come to fewer win-win solutions than friends in part because they are unwilling to ask for what they want, thinking that the other person will be angry with them.</p> <p>Simply giving in to the other person’s demands is not the pathway to win-win solutions. Instead, each party needs to express what is important to him or her and why, and listen carefully to his or her partner’s priorities and reasoning.</p> <p>Explaining that I wanted to eat chocolate cake and understanding that my husband wanted white cake for the pictures was pivotal to our coming to a win-win agreement.</p> <p><strong>Make concessions. </strong>One of the hallmarks of negotiations is that no one gets everything he or she wants. You need to be willing to make concessions, to give up the aspects that are less important to you in order to get what is most important to you.</p> <p>While cleaning up after poker games at our house is not my idea of a great time, it’s worth it to get the summer vacation I want.</p> <p><strong>Be creative.</strong> Once you understand and accept each other’s needs, you need to be creative about finding ways to meet them. This can involve brainstorming and being tolerant of your partner’s crazy, off-the-wall ideas in the process.</p> <p>Should we go to Monaco? What about an online poker account? How about a long weekend in Reno during our Tahoe trip?</p> <p><strong>Make promises, not threats.</strong> Finally, a word about language. One of the realities of negotiation is that either party can walk away. One way to keep the conversation constructive is to make promises (if we both order the chicken, I’ll trade your white meat for my dark meat) and avoid threats (if you won’t trade, I’ll have to order the surf-and-turf).</p> <p><strong>The past and the future</strong></p> <p>Each family has a long history together, with real and perceived slights. Families also expect to have long futures together.</p> <p>As a result, it is extremely important that these negotiations be handled with respect for the other party, and with a view to the long-term costs and benefits. Pick your battles, and concede on the other issues. You don’t need to win them all, just the important ones.</p> <p><em>Image credit: Shutterstock</em></p> <p><em>Written by Rachel Croson. Republished with permission of <a href="http://theconversation.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;">The Conversation</span></strong></a>.</em><img src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/88842/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-advanced" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /></p>

Travel Tips

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"Who picks a fight with a rock star?" Jimmy Barnes confronts on-road "bully"

<p>Jimmy Barnes' wife Jane has ripped into a truck driver who "bullied" the couple on the road, with the driver attempting to "fight Jimmy on the roadside". </p> <p>Jane Barnes said the incident occurred on Wednesday night in the south Sydney suburb of Botany Bay, when the couple had been driving home from a charity event.</p> <p>In a furious thread on Twitter, Jane detailed the terrifying incident which resulted in the police being called.</p> <p>Jane wrote, "(He) cut us off across our lane and swiped our mirror, wanted to fight Jimmy on the roadside."</p> <p>"Trucks are like weapons, bullies behind the wheel a danger to us all," she wrote, alongside the hashtags #TOLL and #NOtobullies.  </p> <p>Jane then shared a photo of the truck drivers' side profile as he almost came to blows with the rockstar, as well as photos of the truck's license plate and the Barnes' car which shows the drivers' side wing mirror bent out of place. </p> <p>Jane went on to say the truckie had shared his details with the couple and that NSW Police had been called over the altercation. </p> <p>However, she said, officers "couldn't do much" if there were no injuries or damages.</p> <p>Jane's post drew in a wave of attention, with one fan asking, "Who picks a fight with a rock star?"</p> <p>Ms Barnes replied, "Shouldn't matter who it is. This guy was just a pig. Swearing, smug, ignorant, misogynist bully."</p> <p>The musician continued her rant on Instagram, writing, "When you drive a truck you're in charge of a weapon. A bully at the wheel can kill people."</p> <p>Many sent their sympathies to the couple, with some saying the tweet was "poignant" given the increase in accidents on Aussie roads. </p> <p><em>Image credits: Twitter</em></p>

Travel Trouble

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3 things all couples fight about (and what to do about them)

<p>All couples argue from time to time, and it seems that we’re all fighting about the same things. These three issues crop up time and time again, mainly because there’s a deeper meaning than whose turn is it really to vacuum the house. Here are a few reasons why conflicts about money, sex and chores often escalate and how to cool down things down.</p> <p><strong>Money</strong></p> <p>Fights about money are rarely about money. Money is fraught with layers of meaning and often how we see it (and how we handle it) is a reflection of our personal values around freedom, security and generosity. Fights about spending can often be traced back to fears about not having influence in important matters in your life, worries about future security or concerns that your partner does not respect you or your money values. If you find yourself continually arguing about money, rather than focusing on the dollar value of items or pinning blame on who spent what when, talk generally about what role you think money should play in your life.</p> <p><strong>Sex</strong></p> <p>The intimate act of sex can both be a wonderful cementer of relationships or it can be terrible wedge that causes untold relationship tension. Arguing about how often to have sex is often not about the act itself but about our feelings of connection, affection and love. It’s important to remember that just like people change over the years so do desires and intimacy needs. Fluctuating libidos is a factor of life and the way to ensure you’re on the same page as your partner is to communicate. Don’t just expect your partner to instinctively know what you need.</p> <p><strong>Housework</strong></p> <p>It may sound like the most trivial of fights but disputes over domestic chores are less about the tasks and more about the underlying meanings of respect, fairness and worth. When one person feels like the household tasks are not shared or equal, it can unearth negative feelings that the other person does not appreciate them or does not respect them enough to help out. Have an agreement about housework tasks and talk about whether it may have a deeper meaning.</p> <p><a href="../lifestyle/dating/2015/01/romance-movies-help-relationships/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Did you know that romance movies have been shown to be a key factor in long-lasting relationships?</strong></span></a></p> <p><em>Image credit: Shutterstock</em></p>

Relationships

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"Welcome to married life": Kyle admits to heated fight with his new wife

<p>Just weeks after his star-studded wedding, Kyle Sandilands has admitted that the "cracks are starting to show" in his marriage. </p> <p>Speaking candidly on his radio show on Tuesday, Kyle shared the details of a heated argument he had with his new wife Tegan over his health. </p> <p>The radio shock jock said that the newlyweds had the fight over Kyle's eating habits, in a disagreement that ended in him storming out of their home. </p> <p>Kyle set the scene of the fight, saying he was wanting a snack and instead of having his wife's healthier options, he got in the car and drove to the shops. </p> <p>"I bought a Milka chocolate; it's thinner and family size. I gnawed through it like a rat with cheese," Sandilands said.</p> <p>"[Tegan] runs towards me and physically wrestles me. I sat there like an anchor and she twisted my arm until I let it go and I was like, 'What carry on is this?'"</p> <blockquote class="instagram-media" style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/reel/CsA1OZxxz9V/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="14"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"> </div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <div style="padding: 12.5% 0;"> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; margin-bottom: 14px; align-items: center;"> <div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(0px) translateY(7px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; height: 12.5px; transform: rotate(-45deg) translateX(3px) translateY(1px); width: 12.5px; flex-grow: 0; margin-right: 14px; margin-left: 2px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; height: 12.5px; width: 12.5px; transform: translateX(9px) translateY(-18px);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 8px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 20px; width: 20px;"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 2px solid transparent; border-left: 6px solid #f4f4f4; border-bottom: 2px solid transparent; transform: translateX(16px) translateY(-4px) rotate(30deg);"> </div> </div> <div style="margin-left: auto;"> <div style="width: 0px; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-right: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(16px);"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; flex-grow: 0; height: 12px; width: 16px; transform: translateY(-4px);"> </div> <div style="width: 0; height: 0; border-top: 8px solid #F4F4F4; border-left: 8px solid transparent; transform: translateY(-4px) translateX(8px);"> </div> </div> </div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center; margin-bottom: 24px;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 224px;"> </div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 144px;"> </div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" href="https://www.instagram.com/reel/CsA1OZxxz9V/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank" rel="noopener">A post shared by Kyle and Jackie O (@kyleandjackieo)</a></p> </div> </blockquote> <p>After the heated interaction, Sandilands recounted telling his wife that he needed a breather.</p> <p>"I said my blood pressure is through the roof and I went out for a cigarette," he recalled.</p> <p>"She told me to have a glass of water. I'm too old. I only eat what I eat, I don't give a s***, it's too late for me to change, I am me," he added.</p> <p>Kyle's radio co-host Jackie O argued that Tegan was just looking out for Kyle's health, before retreating and exclaiming, "Welcome to married life."</p> <p>Prior to the couple's wedding, Sandilands lost a whopping 20kg, discovering his <a href="https://oversixty.com.au/health/body/kyle-sandilands-impressive-weight-loss" target="_blank" rel="noopener">surprise weight loss</a> live on air after Jackie O encouraged him to weigh himself during their broadcast.</p> <p>"You were 140kg at your biggest. You look good and you are definitely not like you used to be," she told him.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Instagram </em></p>

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62-year-old teacher arrested after classroom brawl

<p><strong><em>WARNING: This video contains footage some viewers may find distressing</em></strong></p> <p>Disturbing footage has surfaced online of a teacher appearing to physically attack a student at a NSW public school.</p> <p>The incident occurred at Maitland Grossmann High School, northwest of Newcastle on March 22.</p> <p>Footage filmed by students shows their classmates throwing paper balls at the teacher, 62, who then proceeded to throw the paper balls back at one boy.</p> <p>The situation escalated quickly as the teacher appeared to grab one boy by the collar and pulls him down onto one of the desks, causing other students to get involved.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr" lang="en">CONTENT WARNING: Some viewers may find the following story confronting.</p> <p>A teacher at a school in the New South Wales Hunter region has been charged with assault, after a classroom brawl with students. <a href="https://twitter.com/MaggieRaworth?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@MaggieRaworth</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/9News?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#9News</a> <a href="https://t.co/Gv5ZmpuYCT">pic.twitter.com/Gv5ZmpuYCT</a></p> <p>— 9News Sydney (@9NewsSyd) <a href="https://twitter.com/9NewsSyd/status/1638341798761320449?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">March 22, 2023</a></p></blockquote> <p>One student can be seen in the video pushing the 62-year-old away, yelling “You wanna f***ing touch him again?”, to which the teacher responded by telling the teens to put their phones away.</p> <p>A desk is then thrown at the teacher and several concerned students rush to leave the classroom.</p> <p>The video appears to show the teacher striking the student while he is on the floor.</p> <p>“Are you f***ing stupid?” a student can be heard yelling.</p> <p>The evidently enraged teacher then stands in the doorway and says to the students, “Who wants to have a go?”</p> <p>NSW Police have confirmed the teacher was arrested and charged with common assault.</p> <p>“About 9.30pm, a 62-year-old man was arrested and taken to Belmont Police Station, where he was charged with common assault,” NSW Police told news.com.au.</p> <p>“The teenage boy was assessed at the scene by NSW Ambulance paramedics; however, was not physically injured.</p> <p>The teacher has been given conditional bail to appear before Maitland Local Court on April 6.</p> <p>A NSW Department of Education spokesperson said the department is aware of the incident and the school is now working with police.</p> <p><em>Image credit: YouTube/Twitter</em></p>

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Who hit who? Gwyneth Paltrow fighting “hit and run” charges

<p>Gwyneth Paltrow has appeared in court as she fights charges over a skiing collision that left a man with permanent injuries and brain damage. </p> <p>The actor-turned-wellness influencer is being sued for $450,000 (AUD) by a retired optometrist, who claims Paltrow violently crashed into him in 2016 while skiing at one of the most upscale ski resorts in the United States.</p> <p>Terry Sanderson, 76, said Paltrow was skiing down the slopes so recklessly that they collided, leaving him on the ground as she and her entourage continued their descent down Deer Valley Resort, Utah.</p> <p>"Gwyneth Paltrow skied out of control," Sanderson's attorneys claim in the lawsuit, "knocking him down hard, knocking him out, and causing a brain injury, four broken ribs and other serious injuries. Paltrow got up, turned and skied away, leaving Sanderson stunned, lying in the snow, seriously injured."</p> <p>With the lawsuit now lasting several years, Sanderson is suing Paltrow for the hefty six figure sum, claiming that the accident was a result of negligence, and left him with physical injuries and emotional distress.</p> <p>As the trial began, a central question in the case was posed, wondering which skier had the right of way. </p> <p>At ski resorts, the skier who is downhill has the right of way, so the case is largely focused around who was farther down the beginner's run when the collision transpired.</p> <p>Both Paltrow and Sanderson claim in court filings that they were farther downhill when the other rammed into them.</p> <p>Sanderson has also accused the ski resort of "covering up" the matter by not providing complete information on incident reports and not following resort safety policies.</p> <p>After his initial lawsuit seeking $US3.1 million ($4.65 million AUD) was dropped, Sanderson amended the complaint and he is now seeking $US300,000.</p> <p>Paltrow filed a counterclaim, seeking attorney fees and $US1 ($1.50) in damages, as she claims Sanderson was actually the culprit in the collision, is overstating his injuries, and is trying to exploit her celebrity and wealth.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p>

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Peter Stefanovic breaks silence on Karl vs. Michael fight

<p>Peter Stefanovic has lifted the lid on how his brother Karl is doing in the wake of the recent media storm surrounding his fight with Michael Clarke. </p> <p>The younger Stefanovic spoke on Nova FM’s <em>Fitzy and Wippa show</em> on Tuesday morning, sharing how Karl is holding up. </p> <p>“I think he’s going okay, yeah. Yeah, he’s hanging in there,” the <em>Sky News</em> host replied.</p> <p>However, when pressed by Fitzy on whether Karl’s long-standing friendship with the former cricket star was “over”, Peter was vague.</p> <p>“You never know how these things work out. You know, there’s ebbs and flows,” he told the hosts, before adding that Karl was in “(paparazzi) city” at the moment.</p> <p>“And it’s never a flattering photo they take, is it? It’s always mid-stride,” Peter joked.</p> <p>Karl is yet to comment on the public scuffle himself, while Michael Clarke issued a grovelling apology after the footage of the stoush quickly went viral. </p> <p>Earlier this week, he said in a statement to The Daily Telegraph, “I accept full responsibility for this altercation and am shattered by my actions.”</p> <p>“I’m absolutely gutted I’ve put people I hold in the highest regard in this position. My actions in the lead-up to this altercation were nothing short of shameful and regrettable. </p> <p>“I am shattered that because of my actions I’ve drawn women of class and integrity, and my mates, into this situation.”</p> <p>The pair were <a href="https://oversixty.com.au/news/news/karl-stefanovic-and-michael-clarke-caught-in-public-scuffle-over-cheating-claims" target="_blank" rel="noopener">filmed</a> by a bystander in Noosa which showed a shirtless Clarke being slapped across the face and screamed at by his girlfriend, Karl’s sister-in-law, Jade Yarbrough, over cheating claims.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Instagram </em></p> <div class="media image venti" style="caret-color: #000000; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: auto; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration: none; box-sizing: inherit; display: flex; flex-direction: column; align-items: center; width: 493.639679px; margin: 24px auto;"> </div> <div id="indie-campaign-rHsIzpAmAj7xkA4llYlH-2" style="caret-color: #000000; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: auto; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration: none; box-sizing: inherit; margin-bottom: 24px;" data-campaign-name="NCA ENTERTAINMENT newsletter" data-campaign-indie="newsletter-signup" data-jira="TSN-268" data-from="1640955600000" data-to="1677502800000"></div>

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